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MAR 2 S 1909 



THE 




American Museum 
Journal 



VOLUME V 



1908 



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NEW YORK: 0^ 

PUBLISHED BY THE 
AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

1908 






Committee of Publication 



EDMUND OTIS HOVEY, Editor 

FRANK M. CHAPMAN 1 

LOUIS P. GRATACAP f Advisory Board 

WILLIAM K. GREGORY J 






THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
77th Street axd Central Park, West, New York City 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

PRESIDENT 
HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN 



FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT 
J. PIERPONT MORGAN 
TREASURER 

CHARLES LAMER 



SEt '( )ND i 7( E-PRESIDEXT 
CLEVELAND H. DODGE 
SECRETARY 
J. HAMPDEN ROBB 



Class of 1908 



H. O. HAVEMEYER 
A. D. JUILLIARD 



FREDERICK E. HYDE 
GE< >RGE S. BOWDOIN 



CLEVELAND H. DODGE 
Class of lit').. 



JOSEPH H. CHOATE 
J. PIERPONT MORGAN- 



GEORGE G. HAVEN- 
HENRY F. OSBORN 



Class <>f 1910 



J. HAMPDEN ROBB 
ARTHUR CURTISS JAMES 



PERCY R. PYNE 
JOHN B. TREVOR 



CHARLES LANIER 
ANS< )N W. HARD 



Class of 1911 

WILLIAM ROCKEFELLER 
GUSTAV E. KISSEL 
SETH LOW 

Class of 1011 

D. O. MILLS ALBERT S. BICKMORE 

ARCHIBALD ROGER.- CORNELIUS C. CUYLER 

ADRIAN ISELIN, Jr. 



EXECUTIVE OFFICERS 



DIRECTOR 
HERMON C. BUMPUS 



ASSIS TA X T-SECRE TARY A XD 
ASSISTAXT-TREASURER 

GEORGE H. SHERWOOD 



Scientific Staff. 

DIRECTOR. 
Hermon C. Btjmpus, Ph.D., Sc. D. 



DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

Prof. Albert S. Bickmore, B. S., Ph.D., LL.D., Curator Emeritus. 
George II. Sherwood, A.B., A.M., Curator. 



DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY AM) INVERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY 

Prof. R. P. Whitfield, A.M., Curator. 

Edmund Otis Hovey, A.B., Ph.D., Associate Curator. 



DEPARTMENT OF MAMMALOGY AND ORNITHOLOGY 

Prof. J. A. Allen, Ph.D., Curator. 
Frank M. Chapman, Curator of Ornithology. 



DEPARTMENT OF VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY. 

Prof. Henry Fairfield Osborn, A.B., Sc.D., LL.D., D.Sc, Curator. 

\Y. D. Matthew, Ph.B., A.B., A.M., Ph.D.. Associate Curator. 

Walter Granger, Assistant. 

Barnum Brown, A.B., Assistant. 



Prof. Bashford Dean, A.B., A.M., Ph.D., Curator of Fossil Fishes. 
Louis Hussakof, B.S., Ph.D., Assistant. 



DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Clark Wissler, A.B., A.M., Ph.D., Curator. 

Harlan I. Smith, ^sistanl Curator. 

George II. Pepper, Assistant. 

Charles W. Mead, Assistant. 

Prof. Marshall II. Saville, Honorary Curator of Mexican Archaeology. 



DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY 

William Beitenmi lleh, Curator. 



DEPARTMENTS OF MINERALOGY AND CONCHOLOGY. 
L. P. Gratacap, Ph.B., A.B., A.M., Curator. 

George F. Kunz, A.M., Ph.D., Honorary Curator of Gems. 

DEPARTMENT OF BOOKS AND PUBLICATIONS. 
Prof. Ralph W. Tower, A.B., A.M., Ph.D., Curator. 



DEPARTMENT OF INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY. 

Prof. William Morton WHEELER, Ph.D., Curator. 

Rot \Y. Miner, A.B., Assistant Curator. 

B. E. Dahlgren, D.M.D., Assistant Curator. 



DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY. 

Prof. Ralph \\ . TOWER, A.B., A.M., Ph.D.. Curator 



DEPARTMENT OF MAPS AND CHARTS. 

A. Woodward, Ph.D., Curator. 

iv 



CONTEXTS OF VOLUME VIII. 



Title-Page 


Page 

i 


Committee of Publication .... 


ii 


Officers and Trustees .... 


iii 


Si eentific Staff 


iv 


Contexts 


A" 


List of Illustrations 


vii 



By W 



(Illustrated) 
By Walter 



No. 1, JANUARY. 
Allosaurus, A Carnivorous Dinosaur, and its Prey. 

D. Matthew. (Illustrated) .... 

Guide Leaflet to the Meteorites in the Foyer 
The New Ichthyosaurus. By W. D. Matthew. 
A Preliminary Notice of the Fa yum Collection. 

Granger. (Illustrated) .... 

Museum News Notes 

Lecture Announcements 

Meetings of Societies 

No. 2, FEBRUARY. 
The Rare Insect-Eater, Solenodon. (Illustrated) 
A Stone Idol from Tahiti. (Illustrated) . 
An Archaeological Reconnaissance in Wyoming. By Harlan 

I.Smith. (Illustrated) 

Department of Mineralogy. By L. P. Gratacap . 

A Model of the Largest Diamond Known 

A Collection of Mexican and Central American Beetles 

The Museum Bulletin for 1907 

Museum News Xotes .... 

Lecture Announcements 

Meetings of Societies 

No. 3, MARCH 
Morris Ketchum Jesup 
The Bismarck Archipelago Collection. 

(Illustrated) 

The South American Blow-Gun. By C. W. Mead 
Enhibition Showing the Congestion of Population in New 

York City .... 

Lecture Announcements 
Meetings of Societies 



By C. W. Mead 



3 

7 
7 

8 
14 
15 
16 

19 
20 

23 
25 
26 

27 
28 
30 
31 
32 

35 

37 

42 

44 
45 

48 



CONTENTS 

No. 4, APRIL. 

The Trachodon Group. By Barnum Brown. (Illustrated) 
The Head of the African Elephant. (Illustrated) 
Ethnological Loan Collections 
Museum Publications 



Accessions of Minerals. 
Mr sum News Notes . 
Lecture Announcements 
Meetings of Societies 



By L 



P. Gratacap 



Page 

51 
56 
58 
59 
60 
61 
63 
(id 



No. 



MAY 



South American "Manakins." (Illustrated) 

The Malaria Mosquito Leaflet 

The Use of the Chilcat Blanket. By George I 

(Illustrated) ...... 

New Material from the Congo Free State 

Paintings of Mt. Pele 

Preserved Tattooed Heads of the Maori of Nets 

(Illustrated) 

Museum News Notes 

Meetings of Societies 





65 




65 


\ Emmons 






65 




70 




73 


v Zealand 






73 




76 




79 



No. 6, OCTOBER. 



To the Bahamas for Corals. 
Museum News Notes 
Lecture Announcements 
Meetings of Societies 



(Illustrated) 



83 
88 
95 
96 



No. 7, NOVEMBER. 

(ithbert Rookery. By F. M. Chapman. (Illustrated) . . 99 

The Stefansson-Anderson Arctic Expedition. (Illustrated) . 101 
The Archaeological Reconnaissance of Wyoming. By 

Harlan I. Smith. (Illustrated) 106 

Museum News Notes 110 

Lecture Announcements Ill 

Special Exhibitions 114 

Meetings of Societies . . . . . . . . 114 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Xo. 8, DECEMBER. 

Exhibit Illustrating the Evolution of the Horse. (Illus 

t rated) 
Department of Mineralogy 
Museum News Notes . 
Lecture Announcements 
Meetings of Societies 



Page 

117 
123 
124 
127 
129 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATK >XS. 



The Allosaurus Group 

The Ichthyosaurus, or Fish-Lizard .... 
Sketch Map of the Fayum District, Lower Egypt . 
Museum Caravan Entering the Desert near the Lisht 

Pyramids 

Museum Camp at Qasr-el-sagha .... 
Exhuming Skull of Arsinoitherium .... 
Searching for Fossils in the Productive Bed 

The Haitian Solenodon 

A Stone Idol from Tahiti 

Petroglyph near Shoshone, Wyoming 

Morris Ketchum Jesup 

A Taboo, or Ghost, House in the Bismarck Archipelago 
Malagans from a Ghost House, Bismarck Archipelago 
Implements and Musical Instruments, Bismarck Archipelago 
Trachodon. The Gigantic Duck-Billed Dinosaur of Cretaceous 

Time ....... 

Trachodon. Side view of the erect specimen 
Trachodon Tail ..... 

Trachodon as it Appeared when Living 

The Head of an African Elephant . 

South American "Manakins" 

Yehlh Gou-ou 

Daughter of Chartrich 

Three Chilcat Chiefs 

Joe-Kennel-Ku 

Kitch-Kook . 

cou-de-nah-haw . 

Grave House of a Chilcat Chief 



2 

6 



10 

11 

12 
13 
18 
21 
22 
34 
38 
40 
41 

50 
53 
54 
55 
57 
04 
67 
67 
68 
68 
71 
71 

79 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Tattooed Maori Heads from New Zealand .... 
Maori Tattooing Chisels and Feeding Funnel 

Coral Reef Off Little Golding Cay 

American Museum Expedition to the Bahamas. The 

Schooner " Astarte" at Anchor Inside the Coral 

Reef 

Madrepore Coral . 

Madrepore Corals on the Outermost Edge of the Reef off 

Little Golding Cay 
Living Reef-Corals off Little Golding Cay 
Louisiana Heron in Cuthbert Rookery . 
Making a Sketch for the Background of the Cuthbert 

Rookery Group 

Map of Northeastern Canada and Alaska, Including the 

Region Traversed by the Stefansson-Anderson Polar 

Expedition 

Breastwork Made by Indians in a Rock-Shelter . 
Petroglyph Representing a Man 
Skeleton of the Race Horse "Sysonby" 
Photographing a Race Horse Ri \\i\<; \r 1m ll Speed 
Running Race Horse in Action .... 
Sysonby at Full Speed 



Page 

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75 
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98 
100 



102 
107 
108 
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120 
121 




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The American Museum Journal 



Vol. VIII JANUARY, 190S No. 1 



ALLOSAURUS, A CARNIVOROUS DINOSAUR, AND ITS PREY. 

ONE of the latest additions to the Collection of Fossil Vertebrates 
is the mounted skeleton of Allosaurtis, the great ( arnivorous 
Dinosaur of the Jurassic Period, now on exhibition in the 
Dinosaur Hall. Although smaller than its huge contemporary Bronto- 
saurus, this animal is of gigantic proportions, being 34 feet 2 inches 
in length, and 8 feet 3 inches high. The group forms one of the 
most remarkable and attractive features of the hall. 

This rare and finely preserved skeleton was collected by Mr. F. F. 
Hubbell in October, 1879, in the Como Bluffs near Medicine Bow, 
Wyoming, the richest locality in America for dinosaur skeletons, and 
is a part of the great collection of fossil reptiles, amphibians and fishes 
gathered together by the late Professor E. D. Cope, and presented to 
the American Museum in 1899 by President Jesup. 

Shortly after the Centennial Exposition, it had been planned that 
Professor Cope's collection of fossils should form part of a great public 
museum in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, the city undertaking the cost 
of preparing and exhibiting the specimens, an arrangement similar to 
that existing between the American Museum and the City of Xew York. 
The plan however fell through, and the greater part of this magnificent 
collection remained in storage in the basement of Memorial Hall in 
Fairmount Park, for the next twenty years. From time to time Pro- 
fessor Cope removed parts of the collection to his private museum in 
Pine Street, for purposes of study and scientific description. He seems, 
however, to have had no idea of the perfection and value of this specimen. 
In 1899, when the collection was purchased from his executors by Mr. 
Jesup, the writer went to Philadelphia, under the instructions of Pro- 
fessor Osborn, Curator of Fossil Vertebrates, to superintend the packing 
and removal to the American Museum. At that time the collection made 
by Hubbell in 1879 was still in Memorial Hall, and the boxes were 



4 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

piled up just as they came in from the West, never having been unpacked . 
Professor Cope's assistant, Mr. Geismar, informed the writer that 
Hubbell's collection was mostly fragmentary and not of any great value. 
Mr. Hubbell's letters from the field unfortunately were not preserved, 
but it is likely that they did not make clear what a splendid find he had 
made, and as some of his earlier collections had been fragmentary 
and of no great interest, the rest were supposed to be of the same kind. 

When the Cope Collection was unpacked at the American Museum, 
this lot of boxes, not thought likely to be of much interest, was left until 
the last, and not taken in hand until 1902 or 1903. But when this 
specimen was laid out, it appeared that a treasure had come to light. 
Although collected by the crude methods of early days, it consisted of 
the greater part of the skeleton of a single individual, with the bones in 
wonderfully fine preservation, considering that they had been buried 
for say eight million years. They were dense black, hard and uncrushed, 
even better preserved and somewhat more complete than the two fine 
skeletons of Allosaurus from Bone-Cabin Quarry, the greatest treasures 
that this famous quarry had supplied. The great carnivorous dinosaurs 
are much rarer than the herbivorous kinds, and these three skeletons 
are the most complete that have ever been found. In all the years of 
energetic exploration that the late Professor Marsh devoted to searching 
for dinosaurs in the Jurassic and Cretaceous formations of the West 
he did not obtain any skeletons of carnivorous kinds anywhere near as 
complete as these, and their anatomy was in many respects unknown or 
conjectural. By comparison of the three Allosaurus skeletons with 
one another and with other specimens of carnivorous dinosaurs of 
smaller size in this and other museums, particularly in the National 
Museum and the Kansas University Museum, we have been enabled 
to reconstruct the missing parts of the Cope specimen with very little 
possibility of serious error. 

An incomplete skeleton of Brontosaurus, found by Dr. Wormian 
and Professor Knight of the American Museum Expedition of 1897, 
had furnished interesting data as to the food and habits of Allosaurus. 
which were confirmed by several other fragmentary specimens obtained 
later in the Bone-Cabin Quarry. In this Brontosaurus skeleton several 
of the bones, especially the spines of the tail vertebrae, when found in 
this rock, looked as if they had been scored and l>itten off, as though In- 
some carnivorous animal which had either attacked the Brontosaurus 



THE ALLOSAURUS GROUP 5 

when alive, or had feasted upon the carcass. When the Allosaurus jaw 
was compared with these score marks it was found to fit them exactly, 
the spacing of the scratches being the same as the spacing of the teeth. 
Moreover, on taking otit the Brontosauras vertebrae from the quarry a 
number of broken-off teeth of Allosaurus were found lving beside them. 
As no other remains of Allosaurus or anv other animal were intermino-led 
with the Brontosaurus skeleton, the most obvious explanation was that 
these teeth were broken off by an Allosaurus while devouring the Bronto- 
saurus carcass. Many of the bones of other herbivorous dinosaurs 
found in the Bone-Cabin Quarry were similarly scored and bitten off, 
and the teeth of Allosaurus were also found close to them. 

With these data at hand the original idea was conceived of com- 
bining these two skeletons, both from the same formation and found 
within a few miles of each other, to represent what must have actually 
happened to them in the remote Jurassic period, and mount the Allo- 
saurus skeleton standing over the remains of a Brontosaurus in the 
attitude of feeding upon its carcass. Some modifications were made in 
the position to suit the exigencies of an open mount, and to accommodate 
the pose to the particular action; the head of the animal was lifted a 
little, one hind foot planted upon the carcass, while the other, resting 
upon the ground, bears most of the weight. The fore-feet, used in 
these animals only for righting or for tearing their prey, not for support, 
are given characteristic attitudes, and the whole pose represents the 
Allosaurus devouring the carcass and raising head and fore-foot in a 
threatening manner as though to drive away intruders. The balance 
of the various parts was carefully studied and adjusted under direction 
of the curator. The preparation and mounting of the specimen were 
done by Mr. Adam Hermann, head preparator, and his assistants, 
especially Messrs. Falkenback and Lang. 

As now exhibited in the Dinosaur Hall, this group gives to the 
imaginative observer a most vivid picture of a characteristic scene of 
that bygone age, millions of years ago, when reptiles were the lords of 
creation, when "Nature, red in tooth and claw" had lost none of her 
primitive savagery, and the era of brute force and ferocity showed little 
sign of the gradual amelioration, which was to come to pass in future 
ages through the predominance of superior intelligence. 

W. D. Matthew. 




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NEW ICHTHYOSAURUS 7 

GUIDE-LEAFLET TO THE METEORITES IN THE FOYER. 

DURING December the Museum issued a (nude-Leaflet under 
the title "The Foyer Collection of Meteorites" which gives a 
concise summary of the most important facts regarding meteor- 
ites in general that are of interest to the public and then describes in more 
detail the eight meteoritic falls or finds which are represented in the 
remarkable assemblage of specimens in the Foyer of the Museum. 
The Leaflet is Xo. 26 in the regular series and may be purchased at the 
door for ten cents. 

THE NEW ICHTHYOSAURUS. 

F( >SSILS — real fossils, that is — rarely show anything except the 
skeleton or shell or other hard parts of the animal. The finds 
so often reported by the newspapers of petrified animals — 
calves' heads and birds in a sitting position, for instance — are usually 
merely concretions, formed indeed by natural agencies, which acci- 
dentally mimic the outer form of the animal. The resemblance is 
usually helped out a good deal by the imagination and occasionally by 
the knife of the finder. Such objects are easily distinguishable from 
genuine fossils, because they never show the characteristic internal 
structure of the animals or parts of animals which they resemble. 

Occasionally, however, fossil skeletons show some traces of the skin 
or cartilages of the animal. Quite commonly the scales of fish are pre- 
served showing the entire outline of the body. Less often the skeletons 
of fossil reptiles or mammals show traces of the horny scales of the skin, 
cartilaginous ribs, the wind-pipe or other half-hardened parts, and in 
fossil fish from the Devonian shales of Ohio, even the soft muscular 
fibre has been preserved and can be recognized under the microscope 
by its characteristic structure. 

The most remarkable instance of this kind, however, is in the skele- 
tons of the marine reptile Ichthyosaurus obtained in recent years from 
the slate quarries of Holzmaden in Germany. In these fossils, the out- 
lines of the body, fins, paddles and tail are more or less completely pre- 
served as a thin film of black bituminous matter. By dint of the most 
careful and painstaking work, Dr. Hauff has succeeded in developing 
several specimens so that they show the form of the animal with complete- 



S THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

ness. The American Museum has for some time had the promise of one 
of these, when its preparation should be completed. The desired speci- 
men was recently received and is now on exhibition in the Marine 
Reptile Corridor on the fourth floor. It is believed to be the most 
perfect example of its kind known, and it illustrates well the remark- 
ably fish-like form of these marine reptiles. Although the structure of 
the skeleton, form and relation of the bones, shows that the Ichthyo- 
saurus was a true reptile, an air-breather and related to the lizards, 
snakes and crocodiles, yet it has taken on the form of a fish, converted 
its tail into a fin and its legs into fin-like paddles, in adaptation to its 
marine environment, just as the whales, dolphins and seals have done 
among modern mammals. This interesting comparison has been very 
well and clearly set forth by Professor Osborn in a recent article in the 
Century Magazine, and it is illustrated in the hall by drawings of the 
Shark, Ichthyosaur and Dolphin. 

W. I). Matthew. 

A PRELIMINARY NOTICE OF THE FAYUM COLLECTION. 

THERE has recently been placed in the Hall of Vertebrate Pala?on- 
tologv a special exhibit comprising some of the more important 
and interesting fossil mammals obtained by the expedition to 
the Favum, Egypt, during the winter and spring of 1907. A notice 
of the organization and departure of this expedition may be found in 
the Journal for February, 1907. The entire collection of about 600 
specimens arrived at the Museum last September, but the extremely deli- 
cate condition of many of the specimens renders the work of prepara- 
tion for preservation, study and exhibition a slow process and one to be 
carried on with the greatest care. 

The Fayiim district — in which was the ancient Lake Mceris — -has 
long been famous in the history of ancient Egypt, on account of the 
traditions and records clustering around it. In recent years it has ac- 
quired a new interest from the finding along its northern border of rich 
fossil beds containing the remains of mammals which inhabited Africa 
in early Tertiary times but long since became extinct. The Fayum 
is a natural depression about 50 miles in diameter situated in the Libyan 
Desert, 50 to 75 miles southwest of Cairo and separated from the Nile 
valley by a narrow strip of desert. In early historic times the greater 



COLLECTIONS FROM THE EAYUM 



9 



part of the depression was covered with water which came through a 
natural canal from the Nile; at present, however, the area of the lake 
has been very much reduced by artificially limiting the supply of water, 
and most of the depression is a fertile irrigated tract, with a small lake 
(the Birket-el-Qurun) occupying the lowest part. The surface of this 
lake is about 125 feet below sea level. 

North of the lake the land is waterless and barren and rises rather 
abruptly by a series of terraces or benches to the rim of the depression, 




SKETCH MAP OF THE FAYUM DISTRICT. LOWER EGYPT. 

1200 feet above the water. These benches are made up of Middle and 
Upper Eocene deposits and it is here that most of the vertebrate fossils 
have been found. The deposits begin with marine beds at the base; 
above which are strata classed as fluvio-marine, above which again are 
fluviatile or river-delta deposits, forming the top of the series. This 
succession indicates that, long before the existence of the present 
depression, the southern shore of the Mediterranean Sea was in this 
vicinity; that the sea gradually reached northward, and that then a 



10 



THE < 1 MEIiK \ J N M I ' S E I ' M J URX . 1 L 



mighty river flowing from the south emptied its waters here into the 
sea, before the crust al changes took place that raised the region to its 
present or a greater altitude. The river probably brought down many 
of the remains dug out of these deposits in recent years. 

Vertebrate fossils were first discovered in the Fayiim in 1879 by 
Schweinfurth, but no extensive collecting was done until 1898, when a 
survey of the region was begun by Mr. H. J. L. Beadnell of the Geo- 
logical Survey Department of Egypt. The richness of the deposits in 



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MUSEUM CARAVAN ENTERING THE DESERT NEAR THE LISHT PYRAMIDS. 

fossil remains was then first made known. Mr. Beadnell was accom- 
panied on several occasions by Dr. C. W. Andrews of the British Museum, 
and the results of their explorations were the discovery of a rather 
small but intensely interesting and varied vertebrate fauna and the 
amassing of a large amount of material for both the Cairo and the I. on- 
don museums. The combined material of these two museums has 
recently (1906) been described by Dr. Andrews in an elaborate "cata- 
logue" published by the British Museum. 



COLLECTIONS FROM THE FA YUM 



11 



Although fossils occur in considerable abundance in the [Middle 
Eocene strata, the energies of the American [Museum party were pretty 
well confined to the Upper Eocene or fluvio-marine beds, which contain 
a much larger fauna. Here fossils were found usually in loosely com- 
pacted white or yellow sand, either as isolated specimens or in deposits 
where 1 tones of thousands of animals had been washed together, hope- 
lessly mixed up and often, especially in the case of skulls, badly broken. 
Two such deposits situated about a quarter of a mile apart had been 
discovered and extensively worked, but by no means exhausted, by the 




MUSEUM CAMP AT QASR-EL-SAGHA. 

Middle Eocene bluff in the background. 



English parties. Through the courtesy of the Survey Department in 
Cairo, the American [Museum party was allowed to continue the work 
of excavation in the quarries which had been opened by the English, 
and the greater part of the material obtained was from them, although 
the finer skulls were, in all instances, found elsewhere. The bones are 
only partly petrified, being in striking contrast to the hard, flinty, 
thoroughly petrified wood which is always found in association with 
them, but the most unfortunate feature of these Upper Eocene fossils- 
is the lack of association of the parts of the skeleton. To find two 



12 



THE AM ERICA X MUSEUM JOURNAL 



bones of one animal together was unusual, and this fact renders difficult 
the efforts to determine the relationships of the peculiar forms that were 
encountered. 

With one or two minor exceptions, the entire known fauna of the 
Upper Eocene of the region is represented in the collection obtained by 
our expedition, and there is much material which will add to the pub- 
lished knowledge of these forms. In addition, several new forms were 
discovered, some of them representing new families. The collection 
is particularly rich in remains of the primitive carnivores, or creodonts, 




EXHUMING SKULL OF ARSl NOITHERIUM 

In the background the northern rim of the Fayoum depression. 



of which two splendid skulls were obtained. The artiodactyls are well 
represented, as are also the hyracoids 3 animals with supposed relation- 
ship to the living Hyrax, or Coney. Of considerable scientific im- 
portance was the discovery of rodents, which are represented in our 
specimens by at least two genera. 

The largest and most striking find in the Fayum deposits was the 
Arsinoitherium, an animal with a body suggesting both an elephant 
and a rhinoceros. The head carried a pair of enormous horns on the 



COLLECTIONS FROM THE FAYUM 



13 



nose besides a pair of small ones directly over the eyes. A nearly com- 
plete skull of a young individual of this animal was secured, together 
with parts of many other skulls. Nearly all other parts of the skeleton 
are represented, too. 

The most interesting part of the collection is the series of specimens 
illustrating the early stages in the evolution of the Proboscideans (Masto- 
dons and Elephants). The later stages in the evolution of these animals 
are well represented in the fossils of both Europe and North America, 
and the American Museum has a fine series of skulls of these forms. 




SEARCHING FOR FOSSILS IN THE PRODUCTIVE BED. 

Six or eight feet of unfossiliferous sand has previously been removed from 
above the bone-bearing layer. 



The earlier stages were unknown, however, before the discovery of this 
Eocene fauna of Egypt showed that the Elephants were of African 
origin and spread from there over both the Old and the New World. 
Two genera have been described from the Favum fossils: Mcerithium, 
the smaller and more primitive, had probably but little resemblance to 
the modern Elephant, but PalaeomcLstodon was of larger size and had 
already begun to develop a trunk and other peculiarities of the Pro- 
boscideans. Fine skulls and parts of the skeletons of both these genera 



14 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

were secured and will enable the Museum to illustrate in an admirable 
manner the evolution of the Elephant from the primitive Maeritherium 
down to the modern species. 

While the primary object of the expedition was to secure fossil 
mammals, some attention was devoted to collecting remains of the 
reptiles of the period, and these were found to be quite as abundant as 
those of the mammals. The collection includes shells of several species 
of aquatic turtles and skulls of several kinds of crocodiles, some similar 
to the crocodile now living in the Nile and others with long slender 
snouts like the gavials of the Ganges. Serpents and fishes are repre- 
sented by fragmentary remains. Birds have been found, but their 
remains are so scarce and fragmentary as to be of no great importance. 

Walter Granger. 



MUSEUM NEWS NOTES. 

In the material received from the Belgian government on account 
of the Congo exhibition are extensive assortments of native mats, baskets, 
iron implements and musical instruments. Among the musical instru- 
ments we note particularly an unusually long ivory trumpet and a drum 
five feet in length. Other articles of particular interest are those which 
constitute a Congo sorcerer's outfit, consisting of a face mask, a dog- 
tooth necklace and several fetishes in the form of human figurines 
rudely carved in wood. There is, too, a gourd which was used as a 
pipe stem for the smoking of hemp. In former days the hemp smokers 
were organized into powerful secret societies. 

The Museum is fortunate in having secured from Professor Eugene 
Schrceder a collection of ethnological material from the Bismark Archi- 
pelago in the South Pacific Ocean. Among the most valuable and 
striking of objects in the collection are several Malagans, or idols, from 
a Tabu, or Ghost house; an excellent example of the ancient Death 
Drum, which was sounded only on the demise of a chief, and several 
masks which were used by the men in the Init dance. It was against 
the laws for women to witness this dance, and one who was found at- 
tempting to look at the ceremony was immediately killed. The re- 
mainder of the collection consists of implements of war and the chase, 
musical instruments, personal ornaments, clothing and household 



LECTURE ANNOUNCEMENTS 15 

utensils. There are also many strings of small shell beads, called 
"Diwarra," which form the currency of the islanders. Thirty strings 
of Diwarra is the price usually paid for a wife. 

Among recent acquisitions in the Department of Ethnology may he 
mentioned a stone idol — ( lanesha, the God of Wisdom — from Benares, 
India, which is the gift of Miss T. Wilbour of New York City; archaeo- 
logical collections from Europe and South America received through 
exchange with Professor < riglioli of the museum in Florence, Italy; 
ethnological material from New Guinea, through exchange with the 
museum at Liverpool, England, and archaeological objects from Bar- 
tholomew County, Indiana, made and presented by Dr. J. J. Edwards. 

President Jesup has been made a Corresponding Honorary Mem- 
ber of the Senckenbergische Xaturforschende Gesellschaft in apprecia- 
tion of his gift of the Diplodocus skeleton to the Senckenberg Museum 
.at Frankfurt on the Main, Germany. 

In connection with the dedication of the Senckenberg Museum, 
Frankfurt, Director Bumpus was made a Corresponding Member of 
the Senckenbergische Xaturforschende Gesellschaft. 

Dr. J. A. Allen, our Curator of Mammalogy and Ornithology, 
was elected an Honorary Member of the German Ornithological Society 
in November. The honor thus conferred will be appreciated by those 
interested in the Museum when it is known that there are but nine such 
members listed in the latest publication of this important organization. 
Dr. Allen has also been transferred from the Foreign to the Honorary 
class of members of the British Ornithologist's Union. 

Mr. Henry O. Havemeyer died at his country home on December 
4. For about ten years he had been a Trustee of the Museum, and a 
further notice of him in connection with our institution will be given in 
-a later number of the Journal. 



LECTURE ANNOUNCEMENTS. 

MEMBERS 5 col' USE 
The second course of lectures to Members of the Museum and their 
friends will be given in February and March. 



16 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

PUPILS' COURSE 

The second course of free lectures to school children will be given in 
March and April. 

PEOPLES' COURSE 

The subjects for January are as follows: 

Tuesdays at 8 P. M. Illustrated with stereopticon views. 

January 7. — "The Picturesque Rhine." By Francis L. Strickland, Ph. D. 
January 14. — "Historical Castles, Chateaux and Cathedrals of France." 

By Mrs. Helen Rhodes. 
January 21. — "Spain." By John C. Bowker, M. D. 
January 28. — "Isles of Fantasy." By John C. Bowker, M. D. 

Saturdays at 8 P. M. Illustrated with experiments. Lectures by Pro- 
fessor von Nardroff. 

January 4. — "Magnetism." 

January 11. — "Electricity at Rest." 

January 18. — "The Electric Current: Its Chemical Effects." 

Januarv 25. — "The Electric Current: Its Heating Effects." 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

Public meetings of the New York Academy of Sciences and Affiliated 
Societies are held at the Museum according to the following schedule: 

On Monday evenings, The New York Academy of Sciences: 
First Mondays, Section of Geology and Mineralogy. 
Second Mondays, Section of Biology. 

Third Mondays, Section of Astronomy, Physics and Chemistry. 
Fourth Mondays, Section of Anthropology and Psychology. 

On Tuesday evenings, as announced: 

The Linnsean Society, The New York Entomological Society and 
the Torrey Botanical Club. 

On Wednesday evenings, as announced: 

The New York Mineralogical Club. 

On Friday evenings, as announced: 

The New York Microscopical Society. 




1 I 

o 



The American Museum Journal 



Vol. VIII FEBRUARY, 1908 No. 2 



THE RARE INSECT-EATER, S0LEN0D0N. 

THE illustration on the opposite page has been made from the 
mounted specimens of Solenodon, the skins and skeletons of 
which were received at the Museum in June, 1907, as noted in 
the Journal for last October. The Solenodon is one of the rarest 
animals known and will soon be absolutely exterminated by the mon- 
goose, which was introduced into the island to get rid of snakes. 

The genus Solenodon is the sole member of the family Soleno- 
dontidse, and only two species are known. One of these (Solenodon 
eubanus) is confined to the Island of Cuba, where it is known as the 
Almiqui, while the other (Solenodon paradoxus) occurs only on the 
Island of Haiti, where, according to Mr. A. H. Verrill, who collected our 
specimens, it is known to the natives as the "Orso," "Milqui," "Homi- 
gero" or " Juron." The name "Agouta" is also applied to the animal, 
while the English-speaking negroes from the British West Indies call 
it a "Ground Hog." The animal is classed with the Insectivora. 

The Solenodon is about as large as a rabbit and is singularly like the 
opossum in appearance. It has a long cylindrical snout, a long scaly 
tail and five toes on each foot, the forefeet being provided with long 
claws. The head and body are covered with rather thin coarse hair, 
which becomes thinner toward the rear and is nearly absent from the 
hind quarters. In color the coat, or pelage, is reddish-brown on the 
head and neck, changing to a rusty brown on the body. The animal's 
cry is a loud piercing peculiar note. 

In the American Journal of Science for July, 1907, Mr. Verrill has 
published a short description of the animal in the course of which he 
says, "In its habits the Solenodon resembles a hog, rooting in the earth 
and cultivated grounds, tearing rotten logs and trees to pieces with its 
powerful front claws, and feeding on ants, grubs, insects, vegetables, 
reptiles and fruit, and at times proving destructive to poultry. On 

19 



20 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

several occasions it has been known to enter the houses in search of 
roaches and other vermin, and has been captured in rat-traps. 

"It is strictly nocturnal, and spends the day in caves, holes in the 
coral limestone rocks and in hollow trees and logs. It is a slow, stupid 
creature. It is unable to run rapidly, but shambles along with the zig- 
zag, sidewise motions of a plantigrade. It is doubtless owing to this 
that it obtained the native name of "Orso" (bear). 

"Its long snout and stout front feet, with their curved claws, and its 
thick, short neck prove impediments to forward progress. According 
to the natives it is incapable of running straight. They also claim that 
when pursued it frequently trips itself and tumbles heels over head. 
When hunted with dogs, it thrusts its head into the nearest hole or 
shelter and allows itself to be captured without resistance." 

Five specimens of the Cuban form have found their way into the 
museums of Europe and America; while only one example of the 
Haitian Solenodon has been recorded, and this consists merely of a skin 
and skull which were sent to St. Petersburg in 1833 or before. The 
specimens recently secured by the American Museum are of this ex- 
tremely rare Haitian form and are a gift from President Jesup. They 
were procured from the Kny-Scheerer Company, which had sent several 
expeditions to the island for the animal before that under Mr. Verrill 
was successful. The skeleton and soft parts of this Solenodon have been 
entirely unknown to science, but our recent acquisition will enable us 
to publish a full description of the bones. 



A STONE IDOL FROM TAHITI. 

EARLY visitors to the Society Islands, including Tahiti, state that 
the natives worshiped many different idols. The descriptions 
indicate that the images were usually carved from wood and 
that stone idols were rare, even at the time of the discovery of the 
islands by white men. The Museum therefore is fortunate in acquiring 
the ancient stone idol from Tahiti which recently came as a gift from 
G. Archibald McTarvish, Esq., and which is illustrated on the opposite 
page. A human head and arms have been roughly carved on the upper 
end of the stone, otherwise it has been but slightly worked. The image 
stands IS I inches high and weighs 93 pounds. 




A STONE IDOL FROM TAHITI. 

Height, 18| inches; weight, 93 pounds. 



21 



ARCHEOLOGY OF WYOMING 23 

AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECONNAISSANCE IN WYOMING. 

LAST summer the writer made an interesting archaeological recon- 
naissance of the southern half of the State of Wyoming. This 
region is near the center of a vast neglected field for archaeo- 
logical research to which attention was called in the Boas Anniversary 
Volume of 1907. 

The neglected area extends from the arctic region on the north to 
the Mandan country of Dakota and the well known archaeological field 
of the Mississippi Valley on the east, to the Cliff Dwellings on the south 
and to the rich territory of the Santa Catalina I -land-, the Sacramento 
\ alley of California, the plateau region of Washington and British 
Columbia on the west. The area is so vast and the problems arc so 
numerous, that no one institution, much less any individual, should hope 
to do more than begin the work. 

Among the problems to be solved, the following may be mentioned: 
When did man first appear in the region? Judging from the results of 
exploration in other place-, it may take many years of the combined 
efforts of all who arc interested before extensive evidence on this point 
i- discovered. What was the culture of the first inhabitants? Was 
there more than one culture in the area, either at various places or 
during different period-? How was the culture affected by the intro- 
duction of the horse? No doubt the coming of the horse to a people 
whose only beast of burden had been the dog caused a great advance in 
their general culture, as it would enable them to travel further in search 
of food, to possess and transport more property and to become somewhat 
more independent of the scanty water supply of the region. 

The larger part of the area was inhabited by tribes of Indians be- 
longing to the Athabascan, Algonkin, Siouan and Shoshonean groups. 
An examination of the archaeological remains will throw light upon the 
early history of these people and their migrations. 

The central portion of the area was the home of the American bison, 
upon which the Indians, when first met by the white-, depended not 
only for food, but also for the material for clothing, moccasins, covers 
for tipis and ferry boats or raft-, background- upon which to paint 
calendars and other thing- of like character. The horns and bones 
furnished material for various articles and implements, among which 
may be mentioned spoons, bowls and -kin scrapers. 



24 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

After all the vaunted superiority of the white race, our people today 
are holding their cattle much as the Indians held the buffalo. For in- 
stance, the Indians held the herds at the North Platte River in order 
that the tribes living north of the river might be able to get the buffalo 
all through the year, for if left to themselves, the herd would have trav- 
eled farther to the south in winter. Our round-up and general treat- 
ment of the cattle of the plains, resembles today and always has 
resembled in wildness and cruelty the buffalo hunt of the Red Man. 

In the eastern part of Wyoming, some extensive quarries, where the 
prehistoric people found quartzite and jasper, out of which to make 
chipped implements, have been known for some years. These were 
visited, and specimens and photographs were secured. 

In the same general region other extensive quarries were found, 
some of which were acres in extent, and notes were taken of still other 
quarries known to the local ranchers. Nearly everywhere in Wyoming, 
but more particularly in the eastern part, circles of stones marking the 
sites of ancient tipis were found. They may be counted by the hundred 
in the southern part of Converse County. These stones were no doubt 
used to hold down the skin covering of the tipi. Stones are still em- 
ployed for this purpose by the Blackfoot Indians in Montana, only a 
short distance to the north. 

Pictographs painted in red and black and petroglyphs cut or pecked 
on the cliffs were noticed, particularly in the vicinity of the Wind River 
Mountains. Some of these represent horses (see the illustration on page 
22), proving them to have been made since the white man brought the 
horse to America, others represented the buffalo. 

Steatite pots in the form of an egg, and apparently of a type unknown 
in other parts of America, were noticed, especially in western Wyoming. 
True pottery was rare. Less than a dozen sites were found where 
it occurred, and these were all well towards the southern part of the 
State. They probably mark the northern limits of pottery in this portion 
of the area. 

In the vicinity of Hammond in the Algonkin area, caves were found 
into which the wolves had dragged bones of cattle, sheep and other 
animals, and in front of which there are much village debris, many tipi 
circles and some petroglyphs. These caves probably contain many 
remains, and this vicinity, as well as the western slope of the Wind 
River Mountains, would probably repay detailed exploration. Several 



MINERAL ACCESSIONS 25 

months' work in the latter region would be sure to enable the explorer 
to secure a collection of photographs, illustrating the art of the vicinity, 
as executed in the form of petroglyphs. 

It would seem to be the duty of the students of the Cliff Dwelling and 
Pueblo region to explore northward into this vast neglected area, in an 
attempt at finding the northern limit of that culture. The students of 
the archaeology of the Mississippi Valley, have a similar duty to per- 
form in determining the western limits of the agricultural culture of that 
valley, while the students of California owe it to the world to investigate 
the eastern portion of that State. The eastern limits of the plateau 
culture of southern British Columbia and Washington should also be 
defined. 

Harlax I. Smith. 



DEPARTMENT OF MINERALOGY. 

THE mineral accessions for 1907 were, for the most part, secured 
by means of the income of the Bruce endowment. Some of the 
new specimens, viz.: the interesting beryl crystals from North 
Carolina, the superb polybasite group from Mexico, the unique native 
copper from Arizona and the splendid Brazilian andorite have already 
been recorded in the pages of the Journal, but others are as worthy of 
mention. An excellent display of the attractive opaque pink beryls from 
Haddam, Conn., was made by Mr. S. C. Gillette at the Progress of 
Science exhibition of the New York Academy of Sciences last winter, 
and five beautiful and instructive crystals were purchased from him 
for the cabinet. They are prisms with base and terminal pyramid — 
the latter in varying stages of development — in a quartz matrix. A 
specimen of autunite — the yellow uranate of lime — from Mitchell 
Co., N. C, has interest, and a hand specimen of the uraninite of Central 
City, Colorado, which carries gold and has been studied by Crooke, 
Becquerel and Curie on account of its richness in radium, deserves 
mention. Two light-blue simple crystals of beryl from Mesa Granda, 
Col., massive thalenite from Sweden, mangano-tantalite from western 
Australia, heulandite from Xorwav, the rare mercurv oxides terlinguaite 
and eglestonite from Texas, a remarkable baddeleyite ( ?) from Brazil, 
thorianite from Ceylon, cobaltite from Temiskaming and a huge dyscra- 



26 THE AM ERICA X MUSEUM JOURNAL 

site, or antimonial silver, from the same famous locality, lmmite (a recent 
determination) from Franklin Furnace, N. J., with two really admirable 
menaccauites, in solid, well-developed and distorted crystals from Nor- 
way, embrace the most important purchases. 

An exchange of some interest was made with Prof. T. \Yada of 
Japan for Japanese minerals and one with Mr. Otto F. Pfordte for 
Nipissing specimens of silver and silver ores. 

Mr. F. A. Canfield donated an excellent native lead from Sweden, 
and a characteristic chrysotile from the Grand Canyon of the Colorado 
was received from the Hance Asbestos Alining Co. A representation 
of the iron sulphates (copiapite, coquimbite, amarantite and others) 
from Atacama, Chile, was given by the distinguished collector and 
mineralogist, Mr. John H. Caswell, and through Prof. James Douglas 
there were received from Dr. L. 1). Ricketts two sections of colored 
stalactites from Bisbee, Arizona. One of the superb amethyst-colored 
calcite crystals from Sterlingbush, St. Lawrence Co., X.Y., which formed 
a prominent feature in the mineralogical series at the Academy exhibi- 
tion already referred to has been received from Air. H. P. Whitlock of 
Albany. 

Several additions have been made to the New York Mineralogical 
Club's collection illustrating the mineralogy of Manhattan Island and to 
the Museum series showing the basement rocks underlying the city. 

L. P. CiRATACAP. 



A MODEL OF THE LARGEST DIAMOND KNOWN. 

THERE has recently been placed on exhibition in the Hall of 
Mineralogy (Case 25, north end, east side) a natural-sized 
model in glass of the great Cullinan diamond which the Museum 
has received as a gift from the Premier Transvaal Diamond Mining 
Company, Limited, Johannesburg, South Africa. The Cullinan Dia- 
mond has received its name in honor of the Chairman, or President, 
of the Premier Company in whose ground it was found. The stone 
was discovered by Air. Wells, surface manager for the company, in the 
so-called "yellow ground" some eighteen feet below the surface. Its 
net weight was 3,02-H carats (1 pound, ounces avoirdupois) which is 
more than three times the weight of the largest diamond previously known. 



MEXIi '. I N A XI) CEN TRAL < J M ER TCA N B EE TLES 27 

the celebrated Jagersfontein stone discovered in 1893. The Cullinan 
stone, which is of perfect color and lustre, is bounded by eight surfaces^ 
four of which are faces of the original octahedral crystal, and the other 
four are cleavage surfaces, parallel to the face of the octahedron. The 
size and position of these cleavage surfaces indicate that considerable 
portions, amounting perhaps to more than half of the original crystal, 
have been separated from it and lost. This is the gem which the Trans- 
vaal Colony recently presented to King Edward VII. 

On account of the great size of the stone special machinery must be 
made for cutting it, and it is estimated that from eighteen months to 
two years will be needed for reducing the gem to final size and shape. 
A London expert is said to have expressed the opinion that the diamond 
will be cut into three stones, one of a thousand carats and two of eighty 
carats each. 



A COLLECTION OF MEXICAN AND CENTRAL AMERICAN BEETLES. 

THROUGH the generosity of F. DuCane Godman, Esq., who is a. 
well-known English scientist and is the editor of the famous 
work entitled " Biologia Centrali-Americana," the Museum 
recently has received as a donation a valuable collection of beetles from 
Mexico and Central America. This collection is of unusual scientific 
importance, since it is part of the material upon which the volumes 
of this publication pertaining to the Coleoptera have been based. The 
collection contains more than 4,000 specimens representing 1,679 species, 
many of which were described as new to science in the "Biologia" by 
Messrs. David Sharp, Henry Walter Bates, Henry Stephen Gorham, 
George C. Champion, J. S. Baly, Martin Jacoby and other specialists on 
beetles. The authoritative identifications of the species in this collec- 
tion make it of particular value to students of Coleoptera, and it will be 
of great assistance in the labeling of much hitherto unidentified mate- 
rial in the possession of the Museum and in private collections. 



The Museum has been fortunate recently in securing, through pur- 
chase, a number of Orang-Utan skins from Borneo. The collection 
contains the skin and entire skeleton of one unusuallv large individual. 



28 THE . 1 MERK '. 1 N MUSEUM JOURNAL 

THE MUSEUM BULLETIN FOR 1907 

THE twenty-third volume of the Bulletin of the American Museum 
was issued during the year 1907, and is the largest single vol- 
ume of the series that has been published, containing about one 
thousand pages of text matter and fifty-four plates. The wide range of 
activity of our scientific staff in research in the various departments of 
natural science is indicated by the titles of the thirty-six articles compris- 
ing the volume, as given in the following list. The articles are technical 
in' character, but many of them have much general as well as scientific 
interest. They are published separately and, like the complete volume, 
may be obtained from the librarian. 

PAGE 

Art. I. The Polymorphism of Ants, with an Account of 
Some Singular Abnormalities Due to Parasitism. 
By William Morton Wheeler. (Plates I-VI) 1 

Art. II. The Fishes of the Motagua River, Guatemala. By 

Newton Miller 95 

Art. III. Zebrasoma dcani, a Fossil Surgeon-fish from the 

West Indies. By L. Hissakof. (Plate VII) 125 
Art. IV. An Enumeration of the Localities in the Florissant 
Basin, from which Fossils were obtained in 1906. 

By T. D. A. Cockereli 127 

Art. V. Fossil Dragonflies from Florissant, Colorado. By 

T. D. A. Cockereli 133 

Art. VI. Supplemental Descriptions of Two New Genera of 

iEschnina'. By JaMES (i. NEEDHAM . . 141 

Art. VII. Notes on and Descriptions of New Forms of Cato- 

cala. By William Betjtenmulleb . . . 145 
Art. VIII. Microlepidoptera from the Black Mountain Region 
of North Carolina, with Descriptions of New- 
Species. By W. 1). Kearfoot. (Plate- VIII) 153 
Art. IX. A Lower Miocene Fauna from South Dakota. By 

W. D. Matthew 169 

Art. X. On a Collection of Australian and Asiatic Bees. By 

T D. A. Cockereli 22] 

Art. XL Tertiary Mammal Horizons of North America. By 

Henry Fairfield Osborx . . . .237 
Art. XII. A Mounted Skeleton of the Columbian Mammoth 
(Elephas columbi). By Henry Fairfield 

OSBORN 255 



XE1V VOLUME OF THE BULLETIN 



29 



Art. XIII. Points of the Skeleton of the Arab Horse. By 

Henry Fairfield Osborn .... 259 

Art. XIV. A Mounted Skeleton of Naosaurus, a Pelycosaur 
from the Permian of Texas. By Henry Fair- 
field Osborn. (Plates IX-X) . . . 265 
Art. XV. A Collection of Ants from British Honduras. By 

William Morton Wheeler. (Plates XI-XII) 271 
Art. XVI. The Types of the North American Genera of Birds. 

By J. A. Allen 279 

Art. XVII. New Species of Gall-producing Cecidomyiidae. By 

William BeutexmCller. (Plates XIII-XVII) 385 
Art. XVIII. A Geological Reconnaissance in the Western Sieira 
Madre of the State of Chihuahua, Mexico. By 
Edmund Otis Hovey. (Plates XVIII-XXXV) 401 
Art. XIX. Records and Descriptions of Australian Orthoptera. 

By James A. G. Rehn 443 

Art. XX. Notice of an American Species of the Genus Hoplo- 
paria McCoy, from the Cretaceous of Montana. 
By R. P. Whitfield. (Plate XXXVI) . . 459 
Art. XXI. Notes on a few North American Cynipida 3 , with 
Descriptions of New Species. By William 
Beltenmuller. (Plate XXVII) . . . 463 
Art. XXII. The Bceolophus bicolor-atricristatus Croup. By J. 

A. Allen . .467 

Art. XXIII. A Collection of Reptiles and Amphibians from 
Southern New Mexico and Arizona. By Alex- 
ander G. Ruthyen 483 

Art. XXIV. Some Fossil Arthropods from Florissant, Colorado. 

By T. D. A. Cockerell ..... 605 
Art. XXV. Some Coleoptera and Arachnida from Florissant, 

Colorado. By T. D. A. Cockerell . . 617 

Art. XXVL Remarks on and Descriptions of new Fossil Unioni- 
da? from the Laramie Clays of Montana. By R. 
P. Whitfield. (Plates XXXVIII-XLII) . 62a 

Art. XXVII. The North American Species of Rhodites and their 
Galls. By William Beutenmuller. (Plates 

XLIII-XLVII) 629 

Art. XXVIII. Description of the Skull of Bolosaurus striatus Cope. 

By E. C. Cask 653 

Art. XXIX. The Character of the Wichita and Clear Fox Divi- 
sions of the Permian Red Beds of Texas. By 
E. C. Case 659 



30 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURXAL 



Art. XXX. Additional Description of the Genus Zatrachys Cope. 

By E. C. Case 

Art. XXXI. Fungus-growing Ants of North America. By 

William M. Wheeler. (Plates XLIXUII) 

Art. XXXII. New Merycoidodonts from the Miocene of Montana. 

By Earl Douglas 

Art. XXXIII. The Hell Creek Beds of the Upper Cretaceous of 

Montana. By Barnum Brown ... 

Art. XXXIY. Descriptions of Seven New Species of Turtles from 

the Tertiary of the United States. By Oliver P. 

Hay. (Plate LIV) . . . 

Art. XXXV. Revision of the Miocene and Pliocene Equidae of 

North America. By James Williams Gidlev 

Art. XXXYI. New Forms of Catocala. By W. Beutenmuller 



665 



669 



809 



S23 



847 

865 
935 



MUSEUM NEWS NOTES. 



Through the generosity of Hon. Mason Mitchell, American Consul 
at Chungking, China, the Museum has secured a small, hut valuable, 
collection of mammals from the border of Tibet. Comparatively little 
is known of the zoology of this region, and the Mitchell collection con- 
tains several forms which are apparently new to scientists. Two skins 
of the Takin (Budoscas taxicolor), an extremely rare antelope, are of 
particular interest. Mr. Mitchell is probably the first white man to kill 
this animal, of which no mounted specimens exist in the museums of 
Europe or America. 

Three Tibetan scrolls were among the material presented to the 
Museum by Mr. Mitchell. In a letter regarding them, dated Chung- 
king, China, July 10, 1907, Mr. Mitchell says: — "The scrolls are very 
rare and seldom to he secured, as the Lamas will not sell them; they are 
too sacred. In the summer of 1900. the Yellow Lamas killed four 
French priests. The soldiers sent against them put the Lamas to flight 
and looted the temple. These scrolls were later obtained from the 
soldiers." 



Several interesting specimens from the Sakai, the aborigines of the 

Malay Peninsula, have been presented by Mr. Caspar Whitney, of this 



LECTURES 31 

city, who collected them himself. The collection consists of an orna- 
mented piece of bamboo, which is worn in a hole through the septum 
of the nose, a wooden instrument used in making bark cloth, and a 
number of pieces described by Mr. Whitney as a Sakai wardrobe. This 
"wardrobe" is made up of several bands made from the inner bark of a 
tree, bunches of leaves and an ear-ornament. The broader bands are 
worn by the women about the hips, and the bunches of leaves are sus- 
pended therefrom. The narrow strips are forehead-bands. The ear- 
ornament is a bunch of grass, one end of which is encircled by a broad 
ring of bamboo. This is worn in the lobe of the ear with the bunch of 
grass extending forward. 

The Gem collection has been enriched by a wonderful specimen of 
crystallized gold from California presented to the Museum at Christmas 
time by J. Pierpont Morgan, Esq. An arborescent aggregate of perfect 
little octahedral crystals of pure gold is daintily held in the midst of a 
cluster of clear, prismatic crystals of quartz, forming what many experts 
consider to be the most beautiful specimen of the kind in any collection. 

The following additions to the membership of the Museum have 
been made between December 1, 1907, and January 15, 1908: Fellow, 
Miss Carola Woerishoffer; life Members, Edward C. Bohde, 
Charles E. Slocum, M. D., LL. D.; Annual. Members, William N. 
Hoag, A. G. Wheeler, Jr., John M. Clark, T. Ferdinand Wilcox, 
W. H. Goadby, John G. McIntyrf, Robert Miller, Jr., M. Schuy- 
ler Smith, Miss Gertrude Whitin*;, Miss Emily Redmond, Mrs. 
May Valentine Fisher, P. R. G. Sjostrom, Berniiard B. Amrom, 
David M. Hunter, Theodore Wentz, Bernard F. Amend, Henry 
E. Meeker, Douglas Alexander. 



LECTURE ANNOUNCEMENTS. 

PEOPLES' COURSE. 

The subjects of the lectures to be given in February are as follows: 
Tuesdays at 8 P. M. Illustrated with stereopticon views. 

February 4. — "France: Her History Written in Stone." By Louis F. 
Berry. 



32 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

February 11. — "The Highlands and Islands of Scotland." By Clinton G. 

Abbott. 
February 18. — "The Homes of the Poets." By Sutton Fletcher. 
February 25. — "Fighting the Polar Ice." By Anthony Fiala. 

Saturdays at 8 P. M. Illustrated with experiments. Lectures by 
Professor Ernest R. von Nardroff. 

February 1. — "The Electric Current: Its Magnetic Effects." 
February 8. — "The Electric Current: Its Inductive Effects." 
February 15. — "Cathode Rays, and Rontgen Rays." 
February 22. — "Wireless Telegraphy." 
February 29. — "Radium." 

These lectures are given in cooperation with the Department of Educa- 
tion of the City of New York. They are open free to the public and no 
tickets are required for admittance, except in the case of children, who, on 
account of the regulations of the Department of Education, will be admitted 
only on presentation of the ticket of a Member of the Museum. 

The doors open at 7:30 o'clock and close when the lectures begin. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

Public meetings of the New York Academy of Sciences and Affiliated 
Societies are held at the Museum according to the following schedule: 
On Monday evenings, The New York Academy of Sciences: 
First Mondays, Section of Geology and Mineralogy. 
Second Mondays, Section of Biology. 

Third Mondays, Section of Astronomy, Physics and Chemistry. 
Fourth Mondays, Section of Anthropology and Psychology. 
On Tuesday evenings, as announced: 

The Linnaean Society, The New York Entomological Society and 
The Torrey Botanical Club. 
On Wednesday evenings, as announced: 

The New York Mineralogfcal Club. 
On Fridays evenings, as announced: 

The New York Microscopical Society. 
The programs of the meetings of the respective organizations are pub- 
lished in the weekly Bulletin of the New York Academy of Sciences and 
sent to the members of the several societies. Members of the Museum on 
making request of the Director will be provided with the Bulletin as issued. 




MORRIS KETCHUM JESUP 
PRESIDENT OF THE MUSEUM FROM 1881 TO 1908 

From the portrail in the Museum, painted in L892 by Eastman Johnson 



M 



MORRIS KETCHUM JESUP. 

ORRIS KETCHUM JESUP. one of the incorporators of the 
American Museum of Natural History, a trustee since its 
organization, and president since February, 1881, died at his 
home on Madison Avenue, New York City, Wednesday, January 22, 
IOCS, in his seventy-eighth year. A most liberal and intelligent patron 
of science and of education in its broadest sense, the great loss to the 
city and nation due to his demise falls most heavily upon the Museum to 
which for nearly forty years he had devoted in the most direct and per- 
sonal manner the wonderful ability that made him successful along 
many and varied lines of activity and brought him well-merited honors 
at home and abroad. An account of Mr. Jesup's life and of his long 
and efficient services to the Museum will appear in the form of a special 
memorial publication. 



The American Museum Journal 



Vol. VIII MARCH, 1908 No. 3 



THE BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO COLLECTION. 

THE Schroder Collection from the Bismarck Archipelago in the 
South Seas, the acquisition of which was announced in the Jan- 
uary Journal, contains many objects which arc becoming very 
scarce, through intercourse of the natives with European and American 
traders. The collection has already served as the basis of Professor 
Schroder's publications, hut these are inaccessible to the general public, 
and our Members will he interested to learn something about the more 
noteworthy specimens and what they represent. 

The native inhabitants of the archipelago belong to the Papuan race 
and are cannibals. Cannibalism, however, like many other of the native 
customs is disappearing under the influence of the white men with whom 
the people have come into contact. Clothing is worn hut little by the 
islanders; usually a hand about the hips suffices, and even this is often 
dispensed with. Heavy ear-ornaments are in great vogue. Sometimes 
these are so large and weighty that they draw the lobe of the ear down 
to the shoulder. The people have the custom too of piercing the septum 
of the nose to receive ornaments of bone and other substances. 

The Papuans are firm believers in departed spirits as active partici- 
pants in current events, and ghost, or "taboo," houses are scattered 
through the islands. ( me of the houses is represented on page 38 from 
a photograph taken by Professor Schroder. The framework of the 
structure consists of posts and rafters of wooden or bamboo poles. The 
roof and sides are thatched with grass, but one of the sides is only partly 
closed, so that the contents of the house are exposed to view. In such a 
house are kept the "malagans" or idols. All these malagans represent 
various evil spirits or devils, and the propitiation of these constitutes 
the only native religion, if this may be called a religion, of these people. 
At stated times a ceremonial dance is performed about the ghost house 
in which women are seldom allowed to take part. Another mystic 

37 



BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO COLLECTION 39 

ceremony, known as the "init" dance. i> always performed by men, 
who go through certain rites to the accompaniment of barbarous songs, 
the shrill notes of the Pan-pipes and the dinof shell trumpets and drums. 
Women are prohibited under penalty of death from witnessing this 

ceremony. 

Five malagans from a ghost house are shown on page in. The 
central one is nine feet four inches high and presents the appearance of 
being composed of many figures and slat-like pieces joined together. 
In reality, however, it has been carved from a single log, and the same is 
true of the others. The human figure, animals, birds and fish, all much 
distorted or conventionalized, form the motives of the carvings. The 
colors used in decorating these malagans are white, red and black. If 
the present natives attach any particular attribute to each of these idols, 
it has not been ascertained, and the probability is that their original 
significance has been lost. 

Several characteristic objects of this region is shown in the illustration 
on page 41. At the left is a wooden dance-drum (No. 1) carved from 
a log of palm wood. The handle is considerably above the center, hence 
the drum, when grasped by the left hand, hangs at such an angle as to 
bring the head in convenient position to be readied by the right hand. 
The head is of snake skin, and is usually beaten with the fingers, but 
sometimes with a small stick. The lower end shows a form of decora- 
tion common to most of the islands of the South Seas. The depressions 
of the carved designs are rilled with lime. The white color of the lime 
contrasts strongly with the dark color of most palm wood. Nos. 2, •'! 
and 5 are shark hooks. The shanks are of wood, and the curved points 
are made from the shell of the Tridacna and other large mollusks. No. 
4 is an ax-like implement with a blade made from a large shell. Two 
pieces of wood, hollowed out to receive the upper end of the shell blade 
are bound together and to the handle by a thong made from some creep- 
ing plant. These shell blades are much harder and more serviceable 
than is generally supposed, and answer well for many purposes, especially 
in making canoes, the wood being first charred with fire and then hacked 
out with such an ax or chisel. 

An ancient death-drum, or "nunut" is shown by No. 6. This rare 
specimen, which is the most highly prized piece in the collection, is 
carved from a log of some hard, dark wood, probably a species of palm. 
Each of the three tongues gives out a note of a different pitch from the 




MALAGANS FROM A GHOST HOUSE, BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO 
40 



BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO COLLECTION 



II 



others. In former times this instrument was only used on the death of a 
chief, and we are told that the discord produced by its tones was sup- 
posed to be "spirit voices." Parkinson, however, in "Dreissig Jahre 
in der Sudsee" says that the sound closely resembles the braying of 




b*4 



IMPLEMENTS AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO 

I. Dance drum. 2, 3, 5. Shark hooks. 4. Ax. with shell blade. 6. Death-drum. 7. Shell 
trumpet. 8, 9, 12, 13. Knives. 10. Dagger. 11. Pan-pipe. 14. Lime-gourd and spatula. 

an ass. The player held the instrument between his knees, and drew 
the palm of his hand, which had previously been covered with some 
resinous substance, over the three tongues, causing them to vibrate. 



42 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

No. 7 is a trumpet made from the shell of a Triton. Shells of Triton, 
lianella and ( 'assis are generally used for this purpose simply by making 
a hole in one of the upper whorls for the mouthpiece. The sound of thi> 
instrument can be heard for the distance of half a mile or more, and is 
still often used to signal the approach of a vessel. It is the favorite 
musical instrument at all native gatherings and feasts. Xos. 8, 9, 12 
and 13 are native knives with wooden handles and obsidian blades. 
These are in common use for all sorts of purposes, and are extremely 
serviceable implements. Many primitive peoples have employed obsid- 
ian, or volcanic glass, in different ways, but chiefly in the form of knives 
and points for weapons. The striking physical characteristic of obsidian 
is its conchoidal fracture, a property which makes it a comparatively easy 
matter to detach from a core, long flakes which often have keen edges. 
The wooden handles are decorated with engraved designs, the depres- 
sions painted or filled with lime. No. 10 is an elaborately carved dagger 
made from the leg bone of a cassowary. No. 11 is a Pan-pipe of reeds. 
Pan-pipes among primitive peoples had wide distribution, as we should 
expect. What is more natural than to blow into a piece of bamboo 
or cane and produce a tone; later on the experiment would be repeated 
with a cane differing in length from the first, and a note of different pitch 
would result. The tying together of two or more canes of different 
length would be but a short step forward, and then we have the Pan-pipe. 
No. 14 is a lime-gourd and spatula for holding and mixing the shell-lime 
which is chewed with the betel. The decoration on this gourd, which 
is quite elaborate, has been burned in. 

('. \Y. Mead. 



THE SOUTH AMERICAN BLOW-GUN. 

THE blow-gun for propelling a poisoned arrow is the favorite 
weapon of the Indian in many regions of northern South Amer- 
ica. Although these curious weapons vary in construction in dif- 
ferent localities, they are alike in principle, consisting of a tube from 
eight to twelve feet in length which generally tapers from one to two 
inches in diameter at the mouth end to about three-quarters of an inch 
at the farther extremity. The bore of this tube is about three six- 
teenths of an inch in diameter. In some localities a cup-shaped mouth- 
piece of hard wood is attached to the larger end. 



SOUTH AMERICAN BLOW-GUN 43 

Along- the Upper Caiary-Uaupes blow-guns are made from the 
stems of a variety of palm (Triartea setigera Martius). These palm 
stems haw often been described as canes on account of their having 
rines of sears of the fallen leaves which closely resemble the joints of 
canes or bamboos. The Indian selects two stems of such sizes that 
the smaller will exactly fit within the larger. After these stems have 
been carefully dried and the pith cleared out with a long rod, the bore 
is made smooth by drawing hack and forth through it a little hunch of 
tree-fern roots. The smaller stem is then inserted in the larger, so that 
one will serve to correct any crookedness that may exist in the other. 
The wooden month-piece is then fitted to one end, and about three 
and one half feet from it, a hoar's tooth is fastened on the gun by some 
gummy substance, for a sight. Over the outside the maker winds 
spirally a strip of the dark shiny hark of a creeper which gives it an 
ornamental finish, and his blow-gun i^ complete. 

In some localities instead of the two canes a single piece of palm 
wood is used, which is split into two eipial parts throughout its length, 
each piece hollowed out, and the two divisions afterward cemented 
together like the divisions of a cedar-wood pencil. 

The arrows arc from ten to fourteen inches long, and of the thickness 
of an ordinary Inciter match. Those of the Indians of the Caiary- 
Uaupes are made from the midrib of a palm leaf or of the spinous proc- 
esses of the Patawa ((Enocarjms Bqtawa) sharpened to a point at one 
end and wound near the other with a delicate sort of wild cotton which 
grows in a pod upon a large tree (Bombax ceiba). This mass of cotton 
is just big enough to fill the tube when the arrow is gently pressed into 
it. The point is dipped into poison, allowed to dry, and redipped 
until well coated. The exact composition of this poison is unknown, 
and probably varies in different localities; hut it would seem that the 
chief ingredient is always the mice of a Strychnos plant. It is known 
among different tribes by many names; such as Curan, Ourari, Iran 
and WooraJi. Poisoned arrows are dangerous things to handle, ami 
they are always carried in a quiver which has been partly filled with 
cotton or some other soft vegetable material, into which the poisoned ends 
of the arrows are thrust for protection. The blow-gun is called "Sara- 
batana" on the Upper Caiary-Uaupes, and by many tribes in the Ama- 
zon region it is known as the " Pucuna." The Portuguese of the River 
District call it "Gravatana." 



44 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

The blow-gun in the hands of an Indian is a very effective weapon, 
and a skilled marksman will kill a small bird at thirty or forty paces. 
It is particularly deadly when used against birds or monkeys in the tops 
of trees, as in shooting in a direction nearly vertical the hunter can take 
the surest aim. The poison acts very quickly, seldom requiring more 
than two minutes to do its work, but the length of time depends much 
on the size of the game and the condition of the poison \\st<\. 

In the Museum's recently acquired collection from the Indians of 
the Upper Rio Caiary-Uaupes region are several of these blow-guns 
and many of the arrows \\^c<\ with them. 

C. W. Mead. 



EXHIBITION SHOWING THE CONGESTION OF POPULATION IN 

NEW YORK CITY. 

For two weeks, beginning Monday, March 9, there will he held at 
die Museum an exhibition showing the congestion of population in 
New York City and illustrating graphically the means proposed and 
being taken for the amelioration of conditions among the poor of the 
city. Maps will he used to indicate, among other facts, die location 
of tenements erected within die last few years, all the existing transporta- 
tion lines, the comparative density of population in the different boroughs 
of (he city and in New York in relation to other cities, the location of 
unoccupied farms in (he State and of men and families who have been 
placed on farms during the past year, the location of " sweated " indus- 
tries in the lowest pari of the city, the number of factories and workers 
per acre and the distribution of child labor. 

Models constructed according to scale will be exhibited to show the 
old-law and new-law tenements, tin* increase in the heighl of buildings 
in the last twenty-one years, an open-space tenement containing play- 
ground and park bill covering only half the site of the building, normal 
school rooms and crowded school-rooms, and a series of dark and light 
rooms, apartments in a typical down-town tenement and apartments 
illustrating the work of the Practical 1 lousekeeping ( 'enter- Association. 

In connection with the first week of the exhibition several confer- 
ences will he held beginning Monday evening, March 9, under the 
presidency of President John II. Finley with addresses by Governor 



LECTURES 45 

Hughes, His Excellency Baron des Planches, Italian Ambassador to 
the United States, Commissioner Hebberd and Mrs. Vladimir G. 
Simkhovitch. The topics to be considered at the succeeding confer- 
ences arc as follows: Tuesday morning at 10 o'clock, Neighborhood 
Work; afternoon at 3 : 30 o'clock, Home Conditions in the Congested 
Districts; evening at 8: 15 o'clock. Density and Distribution of Nation- 
alities with addresses illustrated by stereopticon. Wednesday morning 
at 10 o'clock, there will be a meeting of the New York State Consumers 
League; afternoon at 3 : 30 o'clock, a conference on Children in Con- 
gested Districts; evening at 8: 15 o'clock, on Labor and Congestion, 
with illustrated addresses; Thursday afternoon at 3:30, a conference 
of Delegates from cities in New York State; evening at 8: 15 a con- 
ference with popular addresses by Professor J. W. Jenks, Mr. C. M. 
Robinson and Hon. Lawson Piirdy as given in the program of the 
Members' Course of Lectures on this page. 



LECTURE ANNOUNCEMENTS. 
MEMBERS' COURSE. 

Thursdays ;ii 8: l"> o'clock P. M. 

March .-).— V. Stefansson, "A Year with the Eskimo at the Mouth of 
Hie Mackenzie River." 

As a member of the recent Mikkelssen Antic Expedition, Mr. Stefansson 
went overland to the Mackenzie and down that river to its mouth. Here 
he expected to meet the other members of the party, hut the loss of their 
ship prevented their arrival, and Mr. Stefansson, in the absence of supplies, 
became the guesl of the Eskimos. 

March 12. The following addresses will he given in co-operation with the 
< oiinnittee on Congestion of Population in New York. 

Professor Jeremiah W. Jenks. Cornell University, "Physio- 
graphic and Economic Causes for the Growth of Cities." 

Mr. Charles M. Robinson, Rochester, "Town Planning." 

Hon. Lawson Purdy, President of the Board of Taxes and 
Assessments of the City of New York, "The Effect of 
Taxation upon Distribution of Population." 



46 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

March lit. — Charles F. Fay, "The Grandeur of the Canadian Alps, or 
Mountaineering in a New Switzerland." 

Professor Fay, who is a former president of the American Alpine Club, 
lias had an extended personal experience in the Canadian Rockies which 
has given him exceptional opportunities to secure illustrations of the scenery 
of this marvellously beautiful region. From a detailed presentation of its 

main features the lecture passes to a narrative of high ascents. 

March 20. — VY. P. Hay, "The Applicability of Color Photography by the 
Lumiere Process to Scientific Work." 

Mr. Hay will explain the method of handling the Lumiere plates and 
demonstrate the principles upon which they are based. Direct color-photo- 
graphs will he projected by the stcreopticon to illustrate the accuracy with 
which the colors of shells, butterflies, beetles and other strikingly colored 
objects may be reproduced by this process. 

April 2. — CLIFTON F. HODGE, "The Propagation and Domestication 
of American Game Birds." 

Professor Hodge lias accomplished what was at one time thought to be 
the impossible task of raising Quail and Grouse in confinement. His 
experiments have not only permitted him to photograph drumming Grouse, 
and in other ways to gain a new insight into the Jives of these birds, but they 
have high economic value. 
April 9. — O. P. Austin, "Queer Methods of Transportation." 

A view, by motion pictures and stereopticon slides, of the curious methods 
of travel and transportation encountered in a trip around the world; the 
crude methods of the Tropics and the ( )rient are contrasted with the modern 
systems of Europe and America, and some suggestions are presented regard- 
ing the possibility of development of the Tropics and the < >rient through the 
introduction of modern methods. 



AFTERNOON TALKS TO MEMBERS. 

A series of talks to Members on museum methods and collections by 
members of the Scientific Stall' has been begun. The talks are given 
Monday afternoons at :! o'clock according to the following schedule: 

February 24.— F. M. Chapman, "The Habitat Groups of Birds." 

March 2. J. D. FlGGINS, "Methods in Making Artificial Flowers 

and Leaves." 



LECTURES 47 

March 9.— Mrs. Agnes L. Roesler, "The Collections Illustrating the 

Indians of the Plains." 
March 16. — R. C. Andrews, "The Local Mammal Collection. Wild 

Animals Found About New York." 
March 23. — James L. Clark, "Animal Sculpture; How Animals are 

Mounted." 
March 30. — R. W. Miner, "The Jesup Collection of North American 

Forestry; Our Native Trees." 

PUPILS' COURSE. 

Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, at 4 o'clock. 

Open to School Children, when accompanied by their Teachers, and 
to children of members, on presentation of Membership Tickets. 

Mar. Mar. 

Monday, 0, 30. — "New York Colonial Days." By R. W. Miner. 

Apr. 

Wednesday, 11. 1.— "The 'Work of Water." By F. ( ). Hovey. 

Friday, 13, 3. "The Industries of the United States." By G. H. 

Sherwood. 

Monday, 16, 6. — "Life Among Our Indians." By G. H. Pepper. 

Wednesday, 18, 8. " Egypt and Her Neighbors." By Walter Granger. 

Friday, 20, 24. — "Methods of Transportation, Past and Present." 

By H. I. Smith. 

Mondav, 23, 27. — "Scenes in the British Isles." By R. W. Miner. 

Wednesday, 25, 29. — "Life in ( )ur Western States." By Barnum Brown. 

May 
Friday, 27. 1.— "The Japanese and How They Live." By R. C 

Andrews. 

PEOPLES' COURSE. 

Given in co-operation with the City Department of Education. 

The subjects of the lectures to be given in March are as follows: 

Tuesdays at 8 P. M. Illustrated with stereopticon views. 

March 3. — John B. Creighton, "Our ( )wn ( 'ity." Modern New York, 

its growth, commercial interests, social and civic life, and 

future expansion. 
March 10. — Addresses arranged in eo-operation with the Conference on 

the Problems of Congestion of Population, Dr. E. R. L. 

Gould, presiding: 



48 THE AMERICAS MUSEUM JOURNAL 

Hon. Robert W. de Forest, "The Housing Problem." 
Felix Adler, Ph. ]).. "Moral Standards and Family Life 
in Tenements." Hon. Robert Watchorn, "Ellis Island, 
the Door to the United States." Hexry M. Leipziger, 
LL. I)., "The School as a Social Center." 

March 17.— Isaac F. Smith, "Literary and Historic Shrines of Boston 
and Vicinity." 

March 24.— S. T. Willis, LL. D., "The Mississippi Valley and the South- 
ern Slates." 

March 31. — John Jay Lewis, "Through the Canadian Rockies." 

Saturday- at 8 P. M. 

The firsl tour of a course of nine Don-technical lectures, on "Achieve- 
ments of Science and Modern Scholarship," to be delivered by professors 
in Columbia University. Illustrated with stereopticon views. 

March 7. — Professor James Furman Kemp, "Geology." 
March 14. — Professob Ernest F. Nichols, "Physics." 
March 21. — Professor Edmund B. Wilson, "Biology." 
March 28. Professor Henr^ F. Crampton, "Zoology." 

The doors open at 7: 30 o'clock and close when the lectures begin. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

Public meetings of the New York Academy of Sciences and Affiliated 
Societies are held at the Museum according to the following schedule: 

( >n Monday evenings, The New York Academy of Sciences: 

First Mondays, Section of Geology and Mineralogy. 

Second Mondays, Section of Biology. 

Third Mondays, Section of Astronomy, Physics and Chemistry. 

Fourth Mondays, Section of Anthropology and Psychology. 

< >n Tuesday evenings, as announced: 

The Linnsean Society, The New York Entomological Society and 
'Fhe Torrey Botanical < Hub. 

( >n Wednesday evenings, as announced: 

'Fhe New York Mineralogical Club. 

< Mi Friday evenings, as announced: 

'Fhe New York Microscopical Society. 





TRACHODON. 
THE GIGANTIC DUCK-BILLED DINOSAUR OF CRETACEOUS TiME 

From the group in the Dinosaur Hall. No. 407 of the fourth Moor of the 

building. 



50 



The American Museum Journal 



Vol. VIII APRIL, 1908 Xo. 4 



THE TRACHODON GROUP. 

DINOSAUR remains which are complete enough to put together 
as articulated skeletons are rare. Among the best preserved 
of them are hones of members of the Trachodont family. Here- 
tofore, it has been necessary to content ourselves with exhibiting single 
specimens, except in the case of Allosaurus, which has been mounted as 
if it were in the act of feeding upon the remains of a Brontosaur. The 
Museum, however, has recently acquired Trachodon material including 
two nearly complete skeletons, and these have been mounted together in 
a group, so that each represents a characteristic attitude of the living 
animal. The accessories consist of fossil plants belonging to the same 
period and suggesting the natural surroundings and the food of the 
animals. 

This group takes us back in imagination to the Cretaceous period, 
more than three millions of vears ago, when Trachodonts were among 
the most numerous of the dinosaurs. Two members of the family are 
represented here as feeding in the marshes that characterized the period, 
when one is startled by the approach of a carnivorous dinosaur, Tyran- 
nosaurus, their enemy, and rises on tiptoe to look over the surrounding 
plants and determine the direction from which it is coming. The other 
Trachodon, unaware of danger, continues peacefully to crop the foliage. 
Perhaps the erect member of the group had already had unpleasant 
experiences with hostile beasts, for a bone of its left hind foot bears 
three sharp gashes which were made by the teeth of some carnivorous 
dinosaur. 

By thus grouping the skeletons in life-like attitudes, the relation of 
the different bones can best be shown, but these, of course, are only two 
of the attitudes commonly taken by the creatures during life. Mechani- 
cal and anatomical considerations, especially the long straight shafts 
of the leg bones, indicate that dinosaurs walked with their limbs straight 

51 



52 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

under the body rather than in a crawling attitude with the belly close to 
the ground, as is common among living reptiles. 

Trachodonts lived near the close of the Age of Reptiles in the Upper 
Cretaceous and had a wide geographical distribution, their remains 
having been found in New Jersey, Mississippi and Alabama, but more 
commonly in Wyoming, Montana and the Dakotas. A suggestion of 
the great antiquity of these specimens is given by the fact that since the 
animals died, layers of rock aggregating many thousand feet in vertical 
thickness have been slowly deposited along the Atlantic coast. 

The bones of the erect specimen are but little crushed, and a clear 
conception of the proportions of the animal can besl be obtained from 
this specimen. It will be seen that the Trachodon was shaped somewhat 
like a kangaroo, with short fore legs, long hind legs and a long tail. 
r l ne fore limbs are reduced indeed to about one sixth the size of the hind 
limbs, and judging from the size and shape of the foot-bones, the front 
lee's could not have borne much weight. Thev wen- probably used in 
supporting the anterior portion of the body when the creature was 
feeding, and in aiding it to recover an upright position. The specimen 
represented as feeding is posed so that the fore legs carry very little of 
the weight of the body. There are four toes on the front toot, but the 
thumb is greatly reduced, and the fifth digit, or little finger, is absent. 

The hind legs are massive and have three well-developed toes ending 
in broad hoofs. The pelvis is lightly constructed with bones elongated 
like those of birds. The long, deep, compressed tail was particularly 
well adapted for locomotion in the water. It may also have served to 
balance the creature when standing erect on shore. The broad, ex- 
panded lip of bone known as the fourth trochanter, on the inner posterior 
face of the femur, or thigh bone, was for the attachment of powerful 
tail muscles similar to those that enable the crocodile to move its tail 
from side to side with such dexterity. This trochanter is absent from 
the thigh bones of land-inhabiting dinosaurs with short tails, such as 
Stegosaurus and Triceratops. The tail muscles were attached to the 
vertebrae by numerous rod-like tendons which are preserved in position 
as fossils on the erect skeleton. Trachodonts are thought to have been 
expert swimmers. Unlike other dinosaurs their remains are frequently 
found in rocks that were formed under sea water, probably bordering 
the shores but nevertheless containing typical sea shells. 

The elaborate dental apparatus is such as to show clearly that 



THE TRACHODON GROUP 



53 



Trachodonts were strictly herbivorous creatures. The month was 
expanded to form a broad duck-like bill, which during life was covered 
with a horny sheath, as in birds and turtles. Each jaw is provided with 
from 4.3 to 60 vertical ami from 10 to 14 horizontal rows of teeth, so that 
there were more than 2,000 teeth ail tog-ether in both jaws. 




TRACHODON. 

Siik' view of the erect specimen. 

Among living saurians, or reptiles, the -mail South American iguana, 
Amblyrhynchits, may he compared in some respects with the Trachodons, 
in spite of wide difference in size. These modern saurians live in great 
numbers on the shores of the Gala] ag< - Islands off the coast of Chile. 
They swim out to sea in shoals and feed exclusively on sea-weed which 
grows on the bottom at some distance from shore. The animal swims 



54 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 



with perfect ease and quickness by a serpentine movement of its body 
and flattened tail, its legs meanwhile being closely pressed to its side and 
motionless. This is also the method of propulsion of crocodiles when 
swimming. 

The carnivorous or flesh-eating dinosaurs that lived on land, such as 
Allosaurus and Tyrannosaurus, were protected from foes by their sharp 
biting teeth, while the land-living herbivorous forms were provided with 
defensive horns, as in Triceratops, sharp spines as in Stegosaurus or 
were completely armored as in Ankylosaurus. Trachodon was not 
provided with horns, spines or plated armor, but it was sufficiently pro- 
tected from carnivorous land forms by being able to enter and remain 



< 



v. 




TRACHODON TAIL. 

Fragment preserving an impression of the skin. 



in the water. Its skin was covered with small raised scales, pentagonal 
in form on the body and tail, whore they wore largest, with smaller 
reticulations over the joints but never overlapping as in snakes or fishes. 
A Trachodon skeleton was recently found with an impression of the 
skin surrounding the vertebra 1 which is so well preserved that it give- 
even the contour of the tail, as is shown in the illustration on this page. 
During the existence of the Trachodonts, the climate of the northern 
part of North America was much wanner than it is at present, the plant 
remains indicating a climate for Wyoming and Montana similar to what 
now prevails in southern California. Palm leaves resembling the pal- 



THE TRACHODON GROUP 



o.> 



metto of Florida are frequently found in the same rocks with these 
skeletons. Here occur also such, at present, widely separated trees as 
the gingko, now native of China, and the Seqiwia, native of the Pacific 
coast. Fruit- and leaves of the fig tree are also common, but most abun- 
dant among the plant remains are the Equisetce, or horsetail rushes, 
some species of which possibly supplied the Trachodons with food. 

Impressions of the more common plants found in the rocks of this 




TRACHODON as it appeared when living. 

From a model prepared under the direction of Professor H. F. Osborn by 

Mr. Charles R. Knight. 



period with sections of tree trunks showing the woody structure will 
be introduced into the group as the ground on which the skeletons 
stand. In the rivers and bayous of that remote period there also lived 
many kinds of Unios, or fresh-water clams, and other shells, the casts 
of which are frequently found with Trachodon bones. The fossil 
trunk of a coniferous tree was found in Wyoming which was filled 
with groups of wood-boring shells similar to the living Teredo. These 
also will be introduced in the groundwork. 



56 THE . 1 MERR '. 1 N MUSEUM JOI'RX. 1 L 

The skeleton mounted in a feeding posture was one of the principal 
specimens in the Cope Collection, which, through the generosity of the 
late President Jesup, was purchased and given to the American Muse- 
um in 1899. It was found near the Moreau River, north of the Black 
Hills, South J hikota, in 1882, by Dr. J. L. Wortman and Mr. 11. S. Hill, 
collectors for Professor Cope. The erect skeleton came from Crooked 
Creek, Central Montana, and was found by a ranchman, Mr. Oscar 
Hunter, while riding through the had lands with a companion in 1904. 
The specimen was partly exposed, with backbone and ribs united in 
position. The parts that were weathered out are much lighter in color 
than the other bones. Their large size caused some discussion between 
the ranchmen, and to settle the question, Mr. Hunter dismounted and 
kicked off all the tops of the vertebra? and rib-heals above ground 
thereby proving by their brittle nature that they were stone and not 
buffalo bones as the other man contended. The proof was certainly 
conclusive, but it was extremely exasperating to the subsequent collectors. 
Another ranchman, Mr. Alfred Sensiba, heard of the find and knowing 
that it was valuable, "traded" Mr. Hunter a six-shooter for his interest 
in it. The specimen was purchased from Messrs. Sensiba Brothers and 
excavated by the American Museum in 1906. 

Barnum Brown. 



THE HEAD OF THE AFRICAN ELEPHANT. 

The illustration on the opposite page shows the head of a large 
African elephant, as it has been mounted by Mr. Herbert hang at the 
Museum. The animal, which was of unusual size, was killed by Mr. 
Richard Tjader upon the expedition into German Fast Africa which 
he undertook in 190G for the American Museum. When alive, this 
elephant stood 10 feet 4 inches high at the shoulders and was 22 feet 
8 inches long. The tusks are 6 feet 4 inches long and weigh 160 pounds. 
The specimen has been installed in the Past Corridor, second floor 
(Hall No. 205.) Brief accounts of the Tjader expedition were pub- 
lished in the Journal for October, 1906, and April, 1007. 



58 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 



ETHNOLOGICAL LOAN COLLECTIONS. 

Encouraged by the results of the use by the school children through- 
out the city of the circulating nature study collections, our Department 
of Anthropology has prepared several series of specimens pertaining to 
different topics in Ethnology. One of these series illustrates the poem 
of Hiawatha and thus shows the life of the Ojibwa Indians. This was 
deposited first in the children's room at the branch of the New York 
Public library on Amsterdam Avenue near Eighty-first Street. The 
collection consists of a cradle-board, an arrow, a flute, rolls of birch 
bark, cedar-bark fish-line, model of dug-out canoe, war club, mat, 
invitation-sticks for feasts, stone pipe, tinder, rattle, model showing 
picture-writing, medicine bag, wooden bowl for gambling dice, wooden 
cooking dish, bark food dish, wooden spoon and paddle, splint basket, 
model of snow shoes, busts of ( )jibwa youth of the type of Hiawatha, 
of a Siouan maiden representing Minnehaha, of an Ojibwa warrior 
with painted face and of an aged Ojibwa woman of the type of Xokomis. 
The collection is furnished with descriptive labels showing the con- 
nection of the objects with the incidents mentioned in the famous poem. 
Story hours were held each week during the period of the exhibition, 
and the attendance during six weeks has been about three thousand. 
The children have shown a great deal of interest in the exhibit, and 
the circulation of books about Indians has been noticeably increased. 

Another of these loan collections is known as "The Arctic Exhibit" 
and consists of some excellent artist's drawings of the Polar Regions, 
old prints of explorers, Eskimo garments, hunting, cooking and fishing 
utensils and other articles. This was first placed in a new branch library 
at St. George, Staten Island, where it remained for nearly four months, 
beginning in June, 1907. It was next placed at East 67th Street near 
Second Avenue, where it was kept from the last week in October until 
December. The third place of exhibit was at the Hudson Park Branch 
on the lower west side, where the collection remained for five weeks, be- 
ginning Christmas Eve. 

A great deal of interest was aroused by this exhibit, as was evidenced 
by the large attendance at the different libraries, more than live thousand 
persons, mainly but not exclusively children, visiting each branch for 
the express purpose of seeing the collection or reading books referred to 



MUSEUM PUBLICATIONS 59 

in connection with it. For the first few days of the exhibit, there was 
merely a childish interest displayed in the pictures, bears and sledges, 
but after a story hour was devoted to a description of Eskimo life, the 
children seemed to have an intelligent appreciation of the exhibit, and 
the effect on the circulation of books on the Arctic regions was very 
marked. 

Similar collections have been prepared to illustrate the ordinary 
life of the Chinese, of the native Filipinos and of the Indians of the 
northwest coast of America and are ready for distribution. 



MUSEUM PUBLICATIONS. 

IN addition to Volume XXIII of the Bulletin, noted in the Febru- 
ary number of the Journal, the [Museum issued a large amount 
of scientific literature in other forms during the year 1907. 

The following [Memoirs were published: "Archaeology of the Gulf 
of Georgia and Puget Sound" by Harlan I. Smith; "The Chukchee: 
Religion" by W. Borgoras; "The Chilcat Blanket" by George T. 
Emmons, with notes on the blanket designs by Franz Bcas. 

The concluding part of Volume XV of the Bulletin was published. 
This consists of a second report on the Eskimo of Baffin Land and 
Hudson Bay by Professor Franz Boas from notes and material collected 
by Captain George Coiner, Captain James S. Mutch and Rev. E. J. 
Peck. 

Fart V of Volume XVII which is devoted to the results of the Hunt- 
ington California Expedition appeared. This part consists of a de- 
scription by Professor Roland B. Dixon of the surroundings, material 
culture, art, social organization and religion of the Shasta Indians, 
who live in northern California and Oregon. 

Fart IV of Volume XVIII was issued. In this Professor Alfred L. 
Kroeber describes at length the religion of the Arapaho Indians, giving 
the results of studies undertaken in connection with the [Mrs. [Morris 
K. Jesup Expedition. 

A new series of anthropological papers was begun, and Nos. 1 to 3 
of Volume I were issued. They are as follows: "Technique of Some 
South American Feather-work" by Charles W. [Mead, "Some Pro- 
tective Designs of the Dakota" by Clark Wissler, "Gros Ventre [Myths, 
and Tales" bv A. L. Kroeber. 



60 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

ACCESSIONS OF MINERALS. 

Some very unusual crystals of Stephanite, the sulphantimonite of 
silver, have been presented to the Museum collection by Edward L. 
Dufourcq, M. E. These remarkably large and interesting crystals came 
from the Las Chispas Mine in Arizpe, State of Sonora, Mexico. They 
have appeared but recently in collections, and probably all have come 
from this locality. They seem to be developed in vugs, or cavities, under 
favorable conditions for crystallization. They probably surpass in size 
any crystals of Stephanite previously known. They are black, splen- 
dent, and twinned like aragonite, that is an orthorhombic crystal pre- 
sents a pseudo-hexagonal symmetry from interpenetration, twin lamellae 
being seen on the basal plane. This species is hemimorphic /'. e. the 
opposite poles are dissimilar) but by supplementary twinning the termi- 
nations appear the same. The find is undoubtedly of interest, and a 
crystallographic study of the crystals has already been made by Professor 
Moses of the School of Mines, Columbia University, of which Mr. Du- 
fourcq is a graduate. Although perhaps not appealing to the common 
eye, being black and involved groups, they will elicit very keen admira- 
tion from students and collectors. Accompanying this gift was a dona- 
tion from Mr. Dufourcq of seven well-crystallized and curiously rounded 
Argentite specimens, the sulphide of silver, and some very instructive 
examples of wire silver with Polybasite, another sulph-antimonite of 
silver. It has been often shown that heating silver sulphides with reduc- 
ing agents, as gas or even vapor of water, will reduce the silver sulphides 
to metallic threads. It would seem as it' some such action Inn! prevailed 
in the formation of the silver in these specimens. The Stephanite 
specimens are like those from a neighboring mine that were described 
by Professor W. E. Ford in the March number of the American Journal 
of Science. 

L. P. (i. 



MUSEUM NEWS NOTES 



MUSEUM NEWS NOTES. 



(ii 



AT the annual meeting of the Board of Trustees held February 10, 
Professor Henry Fairfield ( )sborn was elected President. Pro- 
fessor ( >sborn organized the Department of Vertebrate Palaeon- 
tolocry in 1891, and under his curatorship, its collection has attained 
firstrank among such series in the world. Since February, 1901, he 
has filled the office of Second Vice-President of the Beard of Trustee.. 

At the same meeting Mr. Cleveland H. Dodge was elected Second 
Vice-President, and Mr. John B. Trevor was made a trustee. President 
( ) S 1 >orn, Director Bump... and 1 >r. ( 'lark Wissler, ( urator of the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology, were elected delegates to represent the Museum 
at the Sixteenth International Congress of Americanists, which ls to be 
held in Vienna in September next. 

Messrs. Courtney Brandreth and Edward L. Dufourcq have 
been elected Life Members on account of gifts to the Museum. Addi- 
tional Members have been elected as follows: Life Member, Ambrose 
Ely Vanderpoel; Annual Members. J. F. Calder, Mrs. Melbert B. 
Cary Louis P. Church, Frederick H. Kennard, W. Willis Rei si . 
John E Whitaker, Alfred Wilkinson, D. Fairfax Bush, Francis 
J. Cogswell, James B. Clemens, M. D., ami Frank D. Skeel, M. D. 

The Department of Anthropology has recently received an important 
collection illustrating the ethnology of the Andaman Islands, a little- 
known group in the Bay of Bengal. This will form the basis of a special 
article in a later issue of the Journal. 

Dr. Leland O. Howard, Chief of the Bureau of Entomology, 
Washington, D. C, gave an illustrated lecture at the Museum Tuesday, 
February is, under the auspices of the New York Academy of Sciences. 
Dr Howard spoke upon "Some Recent Discoveries in Insect Parastism 
and the Practical Handling of Parasites" and one of the features of the 
lecture was a description of studies upon and results as to the extermina- 
tion of the gypsy moth. 

Together with the remarkable ethnological series from the Caiary 



62 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

Uaupes River district of South America received by the Museum last 
summer as the gift of the late President Jesup there came to the Depart- 
ment of Entomology a remarkable collection comprising about 2500 speci- 
mens of butterflies, beetles, bees, wasps and other insects. These have 
been mounted and placed in the cabinet of the Department where they 
may be inspected any day or during the evening on the first and third 
Tuesdays of each month, when the rooms are open to the public in con- 
nection with the meetings of the New York Entomological Society. 

The exhibition showing the congestion of population in New York 
City which was held at the Museum in March attracted wide attention 
from the press of the city and the country at large and drew thousands 
of visitors to the building. The conferences on the various phases of 
the topic were largely attended and the discussions were participated 
in by many sociologists and humanitarians. 

There has been installed in Hall No. 204, Second Floor, central 
section of the building, a globe 48 inches in diameter which has been 
set so that it rotates on its axis by means of clockwork once in twenty- 
four hours. A search light that takes the place of the sun illuminates 
the globe and casts the shadow of an index upon it in such a way as to 
indicate the time of day. This may be compared with the time given 
upon a clock dial which is likewise connected with the mechanism 
operating the globe. 

The Museum is fortunate in having secured a fine polished and 
etched section of the Gibeon (Africa) meteoritic iron. The section is 
19 by 23 inches in extreme dimensions and shows the Widmanstatten 
lines characteristic of meteorites in beautiful development. A plaster 
model of the entire mass was likewise received and forms an instructive 
addition to the exhibit. The model and section were obtained by ex- 
change from the Natural History Museum in Hamburg, Germany. 

Mr. Frank M. Chapman, Curator of Ornithology, left the Museum 
February 29 for Florida to collect material for the habitat group showing 
the nesting of the Spoonbill. This bird was formerly abundant but now 
is on the verge of extinction. 

Dr. B. E. DAHLGREN of the Department of Invertebrate Zoology is 
in the Bahamas collecting corals and other material for the representation 
of a coral reef and its life which is to be placed in the Synoptic Hall. 



LECTURES G3 

LECTURE ANNOUNCEMENTS. 

MEMBERS' COURSE. 

Thursday evenings at 8:15 o'clock. Illustrated. 

The following lectures remain to be given in this course : 

April 2. — Clifton* F. Hodge, "The Propagation and Domestication of 

American Game Birds." 
April 9. — O. P. Austin", "Queer Methods of Transportation." 

CHILDREN'S COURSE. 

Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays at 4 o'clock p. m. 

The following lectures will be given in this course during April : 

April 1 .— "The Work of Water." By E. O. Hovey. 

April 3. — "The Industries of the United States." By G. II. Sherwood. 

April 6. — "Life Among Our Indians." By G. H. Pepper. 

April 8. — "Egypt and Her Neighbors." By Walter Granger. 

April 24. — "Methods of Transportation, Past and Present." By Harlan 

I. Smith. 
April 27. — "Scenes in the British Isles." By R. W. Miner. 
April 29. — "Life in Our Western States." By Barnum Brown. 

PEOPLE'S COURSE. 

The subjects of the lectures to be given in April follows. 
Tuesdays at 8 p. m. Illustrated with stereopticon views. 

April 7. "Down the St. Lawrence from Niagara to the Sea." By Ed- 
ward Justus Parker. 

April 14. — "Oklahoma, the Land of Now." By Elias W. Thompson. 

April 21. — "Wonderful Washington and Its Metropolis Seattle." By 
Alfred W. Martin. 

April 28. — "Hunting Wolves on Snow Shoes." By James A. Cruik- 
shank. 

Saturdays at 8 p. M. By professors in Columbia University. 

April 4. — "Botany." By Professor Herbert Maule Richards. 
April 11. — "History." By Professor James Harvey Robinson. 
April 18. — "Sociology." By Professor Franklin Henry Giddings. 
April 25. — "Metaphysics." By Professor F. J. E. Woodbridge. 
Mav 2. — "Ethics." Bv Professor John Dewey. 



G4 THE AM ERICA X MUSEUM JOURNAL 

These lectures are given in cooperation with the Department of Edu- 
cation of the City of New York. They are open free to the public an<l no 
tickets are required for admittance, except in the case of children, who, 
on account of the regulations of the Department of Education, will be 
admitted only on presentation of the ticket of a Member of the Museum. 

The doors open at 7:30 o'clock and close when the lectures begin. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

Public meetings of the New York Academy of Sciences and Affiliated 
Societies are held at the Museum according to the following schedule: 

On Monday evenings, The New York Academy of Sciences: 

First Mondays, Section of Geology and Mineralogy. 

Second Mondays, Section of Biology. 

Third Mondays, Section of Astronomy, Physics and Chemistry. 

Fourth Mondays, Section of Anthropology and Psychology. 

On Tuesday evenings, as announced: 

The Linnaean Society, The New York Entomological Society and 
The Torrey Botanical Club. 

On Wednesday evenings, as announced: 

The New York Mineralogical Club. 
On Friday evenings, as announced: 

The New York Microscopical Society. 



The American fluseum Journal 



Edmund Otis Hovky. Edit »r. 
Frank M. Ch \cm w. i 
I. oris P. Gratacap, \ Advisory Board. 
William K. Gregory, ) 

Subscription, One Dollar per year. Fifteen Cents per ropy. 

A subscription to the Journal is included in the membership fees of all classes of Membi 

the Museum. 

Subscriptions should be addressed to The American Museum Journal. 30 Boylston St., Cam- 
bridge, Mass., or 77th St. and Central Park West. New York City. 



Entered as second-class matter January 12, 1907, at the Post-office at Boston. Ma—. 
Act of Congress, July 16, 1S94. 








Frontispiece. 



SOUTH AMERICAN MANAKINS." 

From the Bulletin of the Museum, Volume XXIV, Plate XXV. 



The American Museum Journal 



Vol. VIII MAY, 1908 No. 5 



SOUTH AMERICAN "MANAKINS." 

THE illustration used as a frontispiece this month is a colored 
plate from the current volume of the Museum Bulletin (Volume 
XXIV, Plate XXV) used in the description of a new species 
of bird, Chiroxiphia napensis, by Mr. W. Dewitt Miller of the Depart- 
ment of Ornithology. The new form is the lower one on the plate, 
the upper one being Chiroxiphia boliviano,, a species described some 
years ago by Dr. J. A. Allen, Curator of Mammalogy and Ornithology. 
These birds are natives of South America, where they are known as 
"Manakins," a loose term applied to several quite different genera. 
Specimens of the Manakin are on exhibition in the general collection of 
ornithology in the north hall on the second floor (Hall Xo. 208). 



THE MALARIA MOSQUITO LEAFLET. 

THE Museum issued during the past month a Guide Leaflet on 
the Malaria Mosquito, with numerous illustrations most of 
which were made from the series of enlarged models that were 
recently installed in the Synoptic Hall (Xo. 107 of the Ground floor) 
or from drawings made from life and other sources in the preparation 
of the models. The Guide Leaflet is Xo. 27 in the Museum series 
and mav be obtained at the Museum. 



THE USE OF THE CHILCAT BLANKET. 

THE Chilcat blanket, many fine examples of which are to be seen 
in the collections of the Museum, is fast disappearing from 
among the Tlingit Indians, and of the older specimens, so beau- 
tiful in technique, coloring and design, few or none remain, hence it is of 

65 



60 THE AM ERIC AX MUSEUM JOURNAL 

the utmost importance to record pictorially the use of the robe. This is 
the reason for publishing here a series of photographs taken by the 
author when cruising in Alaskan waters in early days when aboriginal 
customs still prevailed. 

To-day all has changed, the influx of white settlers, the establish- 
ment of missions and schools, and the opportunity to earn a considerable 
wage in the fisheries and mines have divorced the natives from aboriginal 
customs, and the rich ceremonial that characterized the life of this 
region and suggested the use of this robe has disappeared, a truth to 
which the great empty communal houses that once resounded to the 
beat of drum and the rhythmic chant of hundreds of voices bear silent 
witness, in their moss-covered timbers fast falling to decay. So those 
who have not seen the old life, and those who follow and never can see it, 
must know of the robe only as a museum specimen hung on the wall or 
draped over a lay figure. 

The primary use of the robe was as a blanket, worn over the shoul- 
ders upon dance or ceremonial occasions by both sexes. It was the 
dress of the Chief, as distinctive of the Northwest Coast as was the 
eagle feather war bonnet of the Plains. Draped over the shoulders, 
only the middle of the blanket showed to advantage across the broad of 
the back, and for this reason the principal figure occupied the central 
field, and that it might be the more fully displayed, the dancer often 
entered the house of entertainment backwards and so danced to his 
place among the performers. With the accumulation of property and 
the increased number of blankets, almost every household possessed one 
or more, which were in the keeping of the head of the family and were 
carefully preserved with the other totemic emblems in great cedar chests. 

The sleeveless shirt, which was similar in material, weave and char- 
acter to the blanket, was worn by the men only, and was rare. While 
.some show an extremely conventionalized design in which the character- 
istic features of the animal are accentuated, and the minor parts are 
represented more as ornaments, placed at the fancy of the artist and 
difficult of recognition, the majority are distinguished by their realism, 
in which the figure is outlined with its members occupying relatively 
natural positions, although the more prominent features are often ex- 
aggerated. The front of this dress being the ornamental part, the 
wearer always faces the audience. 

"W hen death approaches and the spirits of those who have gone before 



THE USE OF THE CHILCAT BLAXKET 69 

return to whisper words of comfort and assurance to the sick, he is care- 
fully dressed for the final journey, and occupies the place of honor oppo- 
site to the doorway, while around him are laid the family head-dresses, 
robes and totemic emblems and nearby the blankets. 

After death, during the four-day period of mourning, when the corpse 
is seated in state, the blanket serves the purpose of a shroud. When 
cremation has been accomplished and the ashes have been collected and 
deposited in the grave house, the blanket may be hung on the outside 
as a token of honor to his memory; and here, the sport of the ele- 
ments, it finally disintegrates and disappears. 

The photographs used in illustrating this brief note require more 
explanation than can be placed beneath the figures. All were taken 
by the author in the early eighties, while the blankets and shirts were 
still in common use among the Chilcat. The figure at the left on page 
<>7 is of Yehlh Gou-ou, chief of the Kon-nah-ta-tee family, in his family 
blanket which bears a totemic design. The weaver having no knowledge 
of perspective, the representation of the emblematic animal is much 
conventionalized. All the parts of the animal are represented, though 
the members have been separated from their fellows and so distorted 
in order to meet the demands of the pattern that they are recognizable 
only by an expert. The right hand figure shows the daughter of Char- 
trich, the chief of the Kar-qwan-ton family of the Chilcat tribe, dressed 
in the family robe bearing the brown bear as its emblem. She wears a 
hat made of spruce root and has around her shoulders the rope girdle 
made of the inner bark of the red cedar which is often used to keep the 
blanket in place. 

Page 68 presents at the left a group of three Chilcat chiefs of the 
Kar-qwan-ton family who were met at Khick-wan village. All wear 
the cedar-bark girdles around their shoulders and have on their heads 
hats of ceremonial significance. The other figure on page 68 is of 
Joe-Kennel-Ku, chief of the Da-she-ton family of the Hootz-ah-tar 
tribe, dressed in the rare sleeveless shirt of blanket work which was 
worn only by men. The emblem is the beaver. The chief's totemic 
hat is particularly noteworthy. 

Page 71 is devoted to pictures of Kitch-Kook and Cou-de-nah-haw. 
Kitch-Kook is the chief of the Kuse-ka-dee or more properly the Kharse- 
ka-dee or Kharse-hit-ton family of the Sitka tribe. He is shown in his 
familv sleeveless shirt of elaborate blanket work bearing the family 



70 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

emblem, the bison. The traditions of this family go back to a home 
in the interior where the bison was found in abundance. In their cere- 
monial designs the animal is represented as standing. The head is 
placed at the top, with the body below. The forefeet are on either side 
of the jaw, the hind feet in the lower corners, the "eyes" just above the 
hind feet represent the hip-joints. The man wears on his head an elabo- 
rate shaman's, or chief's, head-dress and has a shaman's rattle in his 
right hand. Cou-de-nah-haw, a chief of the Kar-qwan-ton family, is 
standing beside one of the old native houses made of hewn logs. His 
sleeveless shirt shows his family emblem to be the brown bear. 

The illustration on page 72 shows the final use of the blanket in the 
ancient Chilcat culture. The most precious article in the wardrobe 
of the chief, it was placed on the front of his grave house after his death, 
as is represented in this view in 1885 upon the banks of the Chilcat 
River. 

George T. Emmons. 



NEW MATERIAL FROM THE CONGO FREE STATE. 

THE Museum has recently received an additional assortment of 
material from the Congo Free State. The new shipment 
contains a considerable number of specimens not found in the 
old collections. To the representative series of Congo musical instru- 
ments there are now added a large xylophone with gourd resonators, 
a zither, some marimbas (native pianos) with bamboo keys, and a beauti- 
fully polished ivory horn with incised ornamentation. There is a fine 
set of fetich figures, some of phallic character, and a valuable shaman's 
mask with upturned proboscis. The industrial arts are represented 
by decorated earthenware, masterly specimens of Bakuba woodwork 
and baskets and feather-caps of an astonishingly complex manner of 
weaving. Bark boxes from the northern section of the State have origi- 
nal lids of carved human heads. The military equipment of the natives 
is illustrated by three cuirasses of pachyderm hide and a scries of shields 
representing various types of manufacture. Some highly ornamental 
adzes were used as insignia of native royalty, and there are also some 
carved sticks which served as badges of distinction. 




Emmons, Photo. 



GRAVE HOUSE OF A CHILCAT CHIEF. 
72 



PAINTINGS OF MT. PELE 73 



PAINTINGS OF MT. PELE. 

THE Museum is fortunate in having; secured as a loan exhibit the 
series of eight paintings of Mt. Pele, Martinique, made by the 
late Professor Angelo Heilprin of the Philadelphia Academy 
of Natural Sciences and Yale University, who was one of the leading 
geographers of the country. Professor Heilprin visited Martinique 
during the great eruptions of 1002 and 1003, first as the delegate of the 
National Geographic Society and afterward on his own account. The 
paintings now at the Museum were made from sketches, photographs 
and other studies in the field and are valuable not only from an artistic 
point of view, but also from their giving a record of the impressions of 
an observer who was a scientist as well as an artist. 

The paintings have been installed m the lobby of the central hall 
(No. 204) of the second floor and will be of interest to those who have 
known Professor Heilprin personally and through the medium of his 
vivid printed and oral descriptions of the tragedy of Martinique that 
resulted from the most interesting as well as one of the most destructive 
volcanic eruptions of historic times. 



PRESERVED TATTOOED HEADS OF THE MAORI OF NEW 

ZEALAND. 

WHEN Captain Cook published the account of his famous first 
voyage around the world, which was made in 1768-1771, he 
described the forms of skin-decoration which he found in 
vogue among the natives of the South Sea Islands. Europeans had 
never before heard of such practices and were correspondingly astonished. 
Cook's rendering of the native term for the process and the result was 
"amoco," a word that is now written "moko." The decoration is more 
commonly known to us, however, as "tattooing." 

The most remarkable work was found among the Maori of New 
Zealand and the preserved tattooed heads of the chiefs and other promi- 
nent men finally commanded such a price among souvenir collectors 
that many murders were committed for the sake of the heads, and in 
1831 the government of Sydney, Australia, then in control over New 



74 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 



Zealand, prohibited the trade in Maori heads. The practice of tattooing 
gradually died and more than a generation has passed since it ceased 
to exist. The heads are now extremely scarce, hence the Museum con- 
sidered itself particularly fortunate in securing last June, as noted in the 
October Journal, the famous Kobley collection. The collection comes 
as the gift of the late President Jesup. 

Major-General G. Robley of the British army, who made a close 
study of the subject of tattooing while he was making his collection, 
states that the old-time Maori tattooer took an artist's pride in his work,. 





TATTOOED MAORI HEADS FROM NEW ZEALAND. 



and the result, not being easily accomplished, was highly prized when 
completed. As may be seen from the photographs reproduced on this 
page the designs are intricate and really beautiful, and the skill of the 
artist must have been great to reproduce them with such accuracy on 
the uneven surface of the human face, particularly in view of the ex- 
tremely tedious and painful process that was employed. 

The tools used, which are represented in the collection, were narrow 
comb-shaped chisels made from the wing-bone of a sea-bird. The 
chisel was driven by tapping with a little mallet quite through the skin. 



TA T TOO ED MA ORI HE. IDS 



75 



Then the tattooer rubbed into the wound a pigment made from the 
powdered charred resin of the "kauri" or "rimu" tree. This process 
left deep blue-black grooves with raised borders, and is entirely different 
from the method common in other parts of the world, in which needles 
are used and the skin left smooth. After the advent of white men in the 
South Seas, iron chisels took the place of the bone tools and the tattooers 
produced finer tracery, while the furrows left were not so deep. The 
illustration on this page shows two of the ancient chisels and one of 




MAORI TATTOOING CHISELS AND FEEDING FUNNEL. 



the carved wooden funnels that were used in feeding: a man while his 
face was swollen by the wounds due to the tattooing. 

According to General Robley, only the heads of prominent men were 
preserved after death. The principal object was to keep alive the 
memory of the dead, either of great friends or powerful enemies, and the 
"moko mokai," as they were called, supplied the place of statues and 
monumental records. In the case of a departed chieftain, his preserved 



70 THE AM ERIC AX MUSEUM JOURXAL 

head was a visible sign that in some mysterious way his spirit was still 
present among his people. 

The old embalming consisted in the removal of all the interior of the 
head and drying in smoke after a careful steaming or even baking. The 
form and features were fairly kept, and the identity of the deceased was 
easily recognized, for the tattooing kept its place exactly on the face. A 
few heads retain the original eyes or have been provided with false ones; 
but usually the eyes of the slain were gouged out and swallowed by the 
victorious warrior that he might absorb the spirit of the enemy, and the 
evelids were closed, since the Maori thought that they were in danger of 
being bewitched, if they looked into the empty orbits. 

The collection is on exhibition in a case on the south side of the 
Peruvian Hall (No. 302 of the gallery floor). 



MUSEUM NEWS NOTES. 

THE Museum has received through gift by C. H. Senff, Esq., a 
rare and valuable collection consisting of more than one hun- 
dred specimens of old Filipino knives, swords, spears, daggers, 
battle axes and other weapons which were collected some years ago by 
Capt. C. B. Hagadorn, U. S. A. This forms a most welcome addition 
to our ethnological series. 

Since our last issue the following members have been elected: Life 
Member, Mr. Alfred G. Dale. Annual Members, Messrs. Frank I. 
Cobb, George F. Canfield, Richard S. French, G. A. Craven, 
August Lewis and Charles Martin Clark and Mrs. Ogden 
Codman. 

Among the expeditions which are in the field or are about to go out 
either wholly or in part for the American Museum, mention may be 
made of the following: 

The Department of Vertebrate Palaeontology will continue its 
explorations in the Permian of Texas, in charge of Dr. E. C. Case; 
in the Cretaceous of Montana, in charge of Mr. Barnum Brown; in 
the Eocene of Wyoming, in charge of Mr. Walter Granger, and in the 



MUSEUM NEWS XO TES 77 

Miocene of Nebraska, in charge of Dr. W. D. Matthew and Mr. Albert 
Thomson. 

Mr. Frank M. Chapman, Curator of Ornithology, and the bird 
artist, Mr. L. A. Fuertes, are in Florida collecting material for the 
habitat groups illustrating the Spoon-bill and the Ivory-billed Wood- 
pecker, as was noted in the April Journal. 

Mr. Roy C. Andrews of the Department of Mammalogy has gone 
to Vancouver Island for the purpose of spending several months at the 
whaling stations on that coast. His work will be the securing of photo- 
graphs, notes and measurements, which will furnish the data for a 
preliminary study of the Pacific species of whales. The entire scientific 
knowledge of these forms rests on the observations of Captain Scammon, 
made more than thirty years ago, which have never been verified. If 
conditions are favorable, an endeavor will also be made to add several 
skeletons of the Pacific whales to the Museum collection of Cetacea. 

Hon. Mason Mitchell, from whom we have already received val- 
uable material, as noted in the Journal, continues to act for us as a 
volunteer collector of mammals in northern China. 

Mr. Arthur DeCarle Sowerby of Tai-Yuan-Fu, Shansi, China, 
has started upon a journey of at least six months' duration through east- 
ern Asia, in the course of which he will collect small mammals for our 
Department of Mammalogy. 

Col. A. E. Ward of the British Army is collecting birds and small 
mammals for this Museum gratuitously in Kashmir. Col. Ward has 
already sent us one shipment of specimens all of which were new to our 
collections. 

Captain B. D. Cleveland of New Bedford, Mass., is soon to start 
upon a sealing and whaling expedition to the Antarctic Seas. He has 
been commissioned to procure for the Museum seals, whales, penguins 
and other animals making their home in and around those waters. 

Captain M. L. Crimmins, U. S. A., is collecting small mammals 
and birds for us in the Western States as a volunteer assistant. 



78 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

Mr. William Richardson of Matagalpa, Nicaragua, is collecting 
mammals and birds in that region for the Museum. He has sent in 
some valuable material including specimens of the harpy eagle, the 
otter, the brocket deer and many rare carnivores and rodents. 

For the Department of Anthropology, Mr. Harlan I. Smith will 
continue in Wyoming and Idaho the archaeological research which 
he began last year; Dr. R. H. Lowie leaves New York this month for 
the Mackenzie River region north of Lake Athabasca, where he will 
begin anthropological studies among the Athabascan tribes, and during 
the latter part of the season he will continue work already begun among 
the Northern Plains Indians of the United States; Mr. Alanson Skinner 
will collect anthropological data and specimens in the James Bay region 
of Canada, and, particularly, among the Indian tribes of Labrador; 
Mr. Gilbert L. Wilson takes up anthropological work among the Man- 
dan and Hidatsa Indians of North Dakota; Dr. J. R. Walker is devoting 
his time to the study of special points in the ethnology of the Dakota 
Indians, chiefly on Pine Ridge Reservation, and Professor Howard 
Richards is in China gathering anthropological material. 

Hon. Hugh M. Smith of Washington, D. C, is doing volunteer 
collecting of anthropological material in the Philippine Islands for us 
in connection with the biological survey of the group which has been 
undertaken by the Bureau of Fisheries of the Department of Commerce 
and Labor. 

Captain George Comer is continuing his valuable work among 
the Eskimo of the Hudson Bay region, whence he has already brought 
the Museum much important material. 

Mr. V. Stefansson, the Arctic explorer, together with Mr. R. M. 
Anderson, left New York about the middle of April for an expedition 
down the Mackenzie River to its mouth ami eastward along the coast 
of the Arctic Ocean. Mr. Stefansson will study the ethnology of the 
Eskimo tribes inhabiting the region, and Mr. Anderson will make zoo- 
logical studies and collections along the route traversed. 

"Shi. G. A. McTavish is collecting anthropological material and 
insects in Tahiti and Mr. W. H. R. Rivers, an English anthropologist, 



MEETIXGS OF SOCIETIES 79 

Is gathering anthropological material and data for ns in the other islands 
of the Society group. 

Dr. B. E. Dahlgren and Mr. Hermann Miiller of the Department 
of Invertebrate Zoology are in the Bahamas collecting material and 
making studies for the reproduction of a coral reef with its associated 
molluscan and other life. 

Dr. E. O. Hovey, Associate Curator of Geology, left New York on 
April 16 for the West Indies to continue his studies for the Museum 
upon the volcanoes of the Lesser Antilles. He will devote particular 
attention to Mt. Pele of Martinique and the Soufriere of St. Vincent, 
in order to learn the changes which have taken place since the violent 
eruptions of 1902 and 1903. 

Mr. E. P. Van Duzee of Buffalo is in Florida collecting insects 
for our Department of Entomology. He will visit Georgia for the 
same purpose before returning to New York. 



The exhibition showing the congestion of population in Xew York 
City was so popular that it was continued for a week beyond the original 
period planned for it and closed on March 29 with an attendance of 
41,589 visitors to its credit during the three weeks that it was open. 

The Easterx Art Teachers' Association will hold its convention 
and exhibition in the auditorium and adjoining corridor from May 14 
to 16 inclusive. 

The next number of the Journal will be that for October, 1908. 



MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

Public meetings of the Xew York Academy of Sciences and Affiliated 
Societies are held at the Museum according to the following schedule: 

On Monday evenings, The Xew York Academy of Sciences: 
First Mondays, Section of Geology and Mineralogy. 



80 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

Second Mondays, Section of Biology. 

Third Mondays, Section of Astronomy, Physics and Chemistry. 

Fourth Mondays, Section of Anthropology and Psychology. 

On Tuesday evenings, as announced: 

The Lin mean Society, The New York Entomological Society and 
The Torrev Botanical Club. 

On- Wednesday evenings, as announced: 

The New York Mineralogical Club. 
On Friday evenings, as announced: 

The New York Microscopical Society. 

On Saturday afternoons, as announced: 

Field excursions of the Torrev Botanical Club and the New York 
Mineralogical Club. 

The programs of the meetings of the respective organizations are pub- 
lished in the weekly Bulletin of the New York Academy of Sciences and 
sent to the members of the several societies. Members of the Museum on 
making request of the Director will be provided with the Bulletin as issued. 

During the summer, the meetings of the Societies will be discontinued 
except for the field excursions, special notice of which will be sent to the 
members of the several societies providing for them. 



The American Huseum Journal 



Edmund Otis Bovey, Editor. 
Frank M. Chapman, ) 
Louis P. Gratacap, \ Advisory Board. 
William K. Gregory, ) 

Subscription, One Dollar per year. Fifteen Cents per copy. 

A subscription to the Journal is included in the membership fees of all classes of Members of 

the Museum. 

Subscriptions should be addressed to The American Museum Journal, 30 Bovlston St., Cam- 
bridge, Mass., or 77th St. and Central Park West, New York City. 



Entered as second-class matter January 12, 1907, at the Post-office at Boston, Mass. 
Act of Congress, July 16, 1894, 




— ~ 



- a5 >> 



~ it 












The American Museum Journal 



Vol. VIII 



OCTOBER. 190S 



No. 6 



TO THE BAHAMAS FOR CORALS. 

AS noted in the April Joikxal, Dr. B. E. Dahlgren and Mr. H. 
Miiller of the Department of Invertebrate Zoology were sent 
to the Bahamas last spring to study the marine life of those 
islands and to collect material for the reproduction at the Museum of a 




£** 



.- 



AMERICAN MUSEUM EXPEDITION TO THE BAHAMAS. 

The schooner "Astarte " at anchor inside the coral reef. 



coral reef with all its richly varied fauna. The expedition left New York 
in March and returned about the end of May with many choice speci- 
mens. Permission to collect was readily granted by the Bahaman 
government, and the governor, Sir Edward Grey-Wilson, and the officials 
in general extended every possible courtesy to our representatives. The 
account of the trip may he given in Dr. Dahlgren's own words: 

83 



84 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 



"A small schooner, a regulation 'sponger' was secured for the work 
on the reef, the owner, Mr. J. Kemp, a local collector and dealer in corals, 
serving as captain, and a week after leaving New York we sailed from 
Nassau for Andros Island. Reaching Mangrove Cay on the follow- 
ing evening, we were warmly received by Rev. Mr. F. B. Matthews, 
Rector of All Saints, who has repeatedly shown himself an active and 
valuable friend of the Museum. On the present occasion he not only 
offered his study and magistrate's court to the expedition for use as a 



t 




MADREPORE CORAL. 

A large specimen on the beach at Staniard Rock, Andros, alter being floated 
from the place where it was found. 



laboratory, but, since he was on the point of leaving for a trip to Europe, 
he put the rectory as well at our disposal. Headquarters were thus 
established within a few miles of the point where we desired to work, 
an arrangement which was very economical of time. 

"The reef which stretches along the whole hundred miles of the 
eastern coast of Andros is particularly luxuriant in development at points 
near the channels or 'bights' which divide the island into three main 
portions. At Little Golding Cay oil' Middle Bight, for example, a 



86 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 



mao-nificent coral reef rises out of deep water to the very surface, so that 
at low tide it is possible to walk about on its upper dead portions. At 




LIVING REEF-CORALS OFF LITTLE GOLDING CAY. 

Seen from above through the water. Photographed with the help 

water glass. 



o( a 



the time of 'spring tides,' when the water falls lower than usual, even the 
living portions of the top of the reef become visible, being' laid bare for a 
moment at a time by the passage of the waves which sweep over the reef- 



BAH AM AN EXPEDITION 87 

"Day after day we anchored in the comparatively shallow channel 
separating- the reef from the main island. Rough weather interfered 
so much with our work that on only two occasions during the month 
that we staid there was it possible for our rowboats to reach the outer- 
most portions of the reef, still we were, in time, able to survey the whole 
of the reef at Little Golding Cay and to form a rather definite conception 
of its structure and the succession of life zones of the various forms of 
madreporarian corals by which it is built. Excellent photographs were 
secured of the exposed portions of the reef, and we were eyen fortunate 
enough to obtain through the water some views of the inner and outer 
submerged slopes. The low scattered fringing reef which extends 
southward from Little Golding Cay was explored for ten miles, as well 
as weather conditions would permit. Our collecting in the meantime 
progressed so well that at the end of the month we were able to send the 
schooner off to Nassau to unload. 

"During the ten days while our boat was absent, portions of the 
coast and the bights and creeks afforded good collecting, and a fairly 
representati\e collection was made of marine inyertebrates of the littoral 
zone. After the return of our vessel, this time a larger sponger, the 
first one haying sprung a leak, weather conditions were still more un- 
favorable, and our work on the reef was interrupted for days at a time. 
At Middle and South Bights some large pieces of coral were secured, 
and smaller ones, from which color sketches of the various species were 
made, were collected daily. 

"One of the numerous 'ocean holes' near-by was visited. These are 
cayerns or hollows in the bottom of the sea. Their sides, as far as visible, 
are lined with wonderful growths of coral, and their waters are alive 
with man v-colored fishes. They have their counterparts on land in the 
holes and caves which everywhere perforate the aeolian limestone of 
which the islands consist. 

"As soon as we were satisfied that a sufficient amount of material 
had been obtained for the construction of a coral-reef group, our remain- 
ing collections were packed and put on board the vessel. The return 
was made by way of Wood Cay and High Cay, where we had hoped to 
obtain specimens, but at both places rain and wind storms effectively 
prevented any work. The packing and shipping of our now rather 
extensive material occupied about ten days after our return to Nassau, 
and then Mr. Miiller sailed for New York. 



88 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

"I stayed behind in the hope of securing, if possible, near Nassau a 
specimen of Madrepore like the huge ones that we had found on the 
outer margin of the Andros reef, but which there baffled all our efforts 
at collecting. Captain J. Slocum, who some years ago became known 
through sailing alone around the world in his fifteen-ton yawl, the 
'Spray,' was fortunately in Nassau at the time with this boat. His co- 
operation was secured, and in a few days a specimen of the desired 
kind was found. 

"Several days of hard work with crowbars and spars were needed 
to dislodge the mass from the reef, but then it was easily floated by 
means of empty casks onto the beach at high tide. After a preliminary 
cleaning it was crated and hoisted on board the 'Spray,' and was 
landed at West 79th Street pier two weeks later. I returned by way of 
Nassau to New York." 

The series of Bahaman sponges, echinoderms, annelids and mollusks 
brought back by this expedition constitutes a substantial addition to 
the collections of the Department of Invertebrate Zoology. From the 
material several small groups will be prepared, but the major portion 
of the corals will, as soon as practicable, be assembled in the form of a 
large group to exhibit in a somewhat condensed form the character of a 
typical West Indian coral reef. 



MUSEUM NEWS NOTES. 

DR. W. I). MATTHEW, Associate Curator of Vertebrate Paleon- 
tology, returned from the Held in August with a gratifying report 
of the work accomplished during the summer. The investiga- 
tions of his party were confined mainly to the Miocene beds of Sioux 
County, Nebraska. Much interesting material was collected from the 
Lower Miocene in the vicinity of Agate, while farther south. I >r. Matthew 
and Mr. Harold Cook, who accompanied him, discovered two new fossil- 
bearing levels from which were obtained collections particularly rich 
in fossil remains of the Horse. Several incomplete skeletons of the 
Middle Miocene horses have been secured, together with abundant 
fragmentary material from a higher level, which may prove to represent 
a new and large fauna that hitherto has been very little known. 



MUSEUM NEWS NOTES 89 

Since our last issue the following persons have been elected to Mem- 
bership in the Museum : Fellow. Mr. Charles H. Sexff; Life Members, 
Mr. William Buckman and Dr. Theodore Dunham; Annual Mem- 
bers, Messrs. F. A. Coffin, C. L. Colton, M. Delano, R. H. Halsey 
and T. W. E. de Lemos and Mrs. G. G. Williams. 

In the Dinosaur Hall ( Xo. 407 of the Fourth Floor) the Trachodon 
group described in the April number of the Journal has been com- 
pleted by the addition of the second skeleton and by the insertion in the 
base of fossils and models showing the shells and plants belonging to a 
mud flat of the period (Cretaceous) when the animals lived, together 
with fossil leaves of trees growing along the bordering mainland. Sev- 
eral beautiful transparencies representing the Cretaceous Bad Lands 
and the Triassic and Jurassic bluffs in Montana and Wyoming from 
which have been obtained many of the dinosaur remains making up the 
exhibitions in the hall have been placed in the ea>t windows. 

Ix the Hall of Fossil Mammals I Xo. 406 of the Fourth Floor) several 
important additions and changes have been made during the past few 
months. A specimen of the four-toed horse (Orohipjms osbornianus 
Cope) from the Middle Eocene beds of the Bridger Basin, Wyoming, 
has been placed on exhibition. This was a small animal of about the 
same size as its ancestor in the Lower Eocene beds. It had four toes 
in the fore feet and three in the hind feet, but there are no vestiges of the 
fourth toe remaining. Last year's expedition to Egypt is brought to 
mind by an exhibit consisting of the skull and lower jaws of the Horned 
Arsinoithere. This gives one too some hint of the strange appearance 
of one of the animals inhabiting northeastern Africa in Upper Eocene 
time. The large skeleton of the great Sabre-Tooth Tiger, Smilodon, 
from the Pleistocene beds of South America has been put into a case by 
itself, in which is also exhibited an oil painting by Charles R. Knight 
representing the animal as it is supposed to have appeared in life. There 
lias been placed in the Amblypod Alcove at the west entrance to the hall 
a splendid composite skeleton of Uintatherium. This was a huge four- 
toed, elephantine, hoofed animal with large dagger-like tusks. 

Dr. Edmund Otis Hovey, Associate Curator of Geology, who visited 
the West Indies for the Museum immediately after the eruptions of Mt. 
Pele and the Soufriere in 1902, and went again in 1903, made a third 



90 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

expedition to the islands last spring and summer. The principal points- 
visited were the islands of Martinique, St. Vincent, Guadeloupe, Gren- 
ada and Barbados, in all of which collections were made supplementary 
to those previously obtained. Dr. Hovey was particularly fortunate in 
securing photographs showing the changes which have taken place dur- 
ing: the last five vears in both of the active volcanoes, having camped out 
on Mt.' Pele for ten days and on the Soufriere for five days. Temperature 
observations of the fumaroles were made, including pyrometer observa- 
tions on the high-temperature vents of the summit of the new cone of 
Pele, where a heat of at least 959° F. was found. No dust or debris 
is being discharged at Pele, although there is abundant and vigorous 
steam action. The Soufriere of St. Vincent is absolutely quiet. The 
bottom of the crater is now occupied by a beautiful lake, which is appar- 
ently about as large as that for which the volcano was famous before 
the eruptions of 1902-03. Many interesting data were obtained regard- 
ing the extent of erosion and the advance of vegetation and cultivation 
in the devastated areas of Martinique and St. Vincent. 

The exhibit from Mt. Pele, Martinique, has been enriched by the 
addition of glass, silver and other articles from St. Pierre which were 
melted or softened or otherwise affected by the heat of the burning city 
at the time of the first great eruption. Some of these have been placed 
with the exhibition of Heilprin paintings in the lobby of the central hall 
(No. 204) of the Main Floor, and others have been put with the principal 
Pele exhibit in the Hall of Geology (No. 408 of the Fourth Floor). 
Some colored transparencies of the mountain have been installed in the 
stairway between the Third and Fourth Floors. 

The Museum was the headquarters of the Second Annual Congress 
of the Playground Association of America during its session in New 
York from September S-12. The Association was founded with the 
object of showing that property supervised playgrounds help to produce 
o-ood citizens, and endeavors to "interest every American city in play- 
grounds and in a study of possible playground sites; then to co-operate 
in starting the work of providing them." 

There has just been added to the collection of Cetaceans in the 
East Mammal Hall (No. 306) of the Gallery Floor, a full-size model 



MUSEUM NEWS NOTES 91 

of the Black Fish, or Pilot Whale, made from a cast taken from the 
actual specimen by the Boston Society of Natural History. This ani- 
mal is still common in North Atlantic waters. There have also been 
put on exhibition small models of the Right Whale, made from the 
whale caught at Amagansett, L. I., in February of last year and the 
Humpback Whale, and a small model of the head of the Sulphurbottom 
Whale showing the position of the whalebone and the way in which the 
animal opens its mouth. 

The case containing representatives of the large members of the Cat 
Family has been entirely re-arranged and made more effective in its 
installation and now includes the mounted specimen of the Carnegie 
lion which was described and illustrated in the Journal for March, 1907. 

In the East Mammal Hall of the Second Floor (No. 207) there 
have been installed seven panels of heads of the big game and other 
trophies collected by Mr. John R. Bradley of New York and deposited 
with the Museum. The heads are fine examples of the large mammals 
of America, Asia and Africa and represent a wide range of species. 

The Museum has recently received on deposit from the estate of 
Commodore Lawrence Kearny, U. S. N., a valuable feather cape from 
the island of Hawaii that was given to him by King Kamehameha III, 
on the occasion of the commodore's visit to Honolulu in 1S43 on a 
diplomatic errand from the American government. 

Within the past few months several important collections and in- 
dividual specimens have been received by the Department of Anthro- 
pology. Among these particular mention should be made of a series 
of about 6,000 objects illustrating the archaeology of the State of New 
York which comes as a gift from Henry Booth, Esq., of Poughkeepsie. 
This collection contains implements and utensils of stone, bone, shell 
and pottery showing the culture of the prehistoric peoples and a number 
of skulls and skeletons. From 'Sir. M. F. Savage have been received 
a remarkably fine spear and paddle from Hawaii and an iron tobacco 
pipe inlaid with gold from Manchuria. T. MacGregor MacDonald, 
Esq., of Wallilabo, St. Vincent, B. W. I., has presented a Carib stone 
axe and a stone for grinding stone implements from the island of St. 



92 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

Vincent. The axe is of the "fish" pattern and is one of the largest 
examples of this form known. By exchange with the Museo Ethno- 
grafico of Buenos Aires the Department has obtained a collection of 
pottery and wooden objects illustrating the archaeology of the Province 
of Salta, Valley of Calchaqui, Argentina. From the Carnegie Museum 
of Pittsburgh has come, likewise through exchange, a series of 600 pieces 
of ancient pottery from Costa Rica and a small collection, including 
three very large earthenware jars, from Colombia. Mr. C. C. A inton 
has sent in an extensive ethnological collection from Korea, obtained on 
a Museum expedition. 

Two relief maps of North America have been placed with the Bison 
group showing by means of dots of different colors the former wide 
range and abundance of the animal and its present meagre distribution 
or practical extermination. 

The exhibit in the Central Hall of the Second Floor which shows 
the time of day and the change of seasons has been modified and ampli- 
fied so that now the four-foot globe representing the earth not only turns 
upon its axis once in twenty-four hours but also is made to revolve 
around the sun once a year with its proper motion and in its correct 
position. The light of the sun is represented by an electric stereopti- 
con which casts a noon mark on the globe by means of the shallow of 
a line. This shadow at the same time shows the mean time for the 
longitude of New York City by means of subdivisions upon the equator. 
This exhibit has awakened a great deal of interest and is instructive 
in many ways additional to those mentioned. 

The exhibit on the ground floor illustrating the solar system has been 
altered so as to be more comprehensive and instructive. The sun is 
now represented by an illuminated globe three inches in diameter, which 
brings the orbit of the earth just within the Foyer. The Foyer therefore 
now contains the whole of the orbits of Mercury, Venus and the Earth 
and part of that of Mars, while the adjoining exhibition halls contain 
the remainder of the orbits of Mars and parts of those of Jupiter and 
Saturn. The orbits are represented by circles of wire on which the days 
and months are indicated and along which the planets, shown as lights 
of proper size, are moved from day to day in correct position. This 



MUSEUM NEWS XOTES 93 

installation demonstrates graphically and on a satisfactory scale the 
relative positions of the members of the solar system as far as Mars on 
the day of observation, gives the morning and evening stars on that day 
and the reasons for their being such and illustrates other facts in astron- 
omy that often are obscure to most people. 

Dr. Robert H. Lowie returned to the [Museum September 4, from 
an extended ethnological trip to the Northwest. He left New York 
on May 5 to visit the Chipewyan Indians, residing on Lake Athabaska 
in the northernmost part of the province of Alberta, Canada. Dr. 
Lowie secured notes on the industrial life and mythological conceptions 
of these Indians and took many photographs illustrating their physical 
types. On the way back to New York, he spent four weeks in Montana, 
where he continued his studies of the ethnology of the Assiniboine. 

There has recently been installed in the American Indian Hall 
(No. 102 of the First Floor) a valuable loan exhibit of paintings and 
sketches of Chippewa Indians which were made from life by the noted 
portrait painter, the late Eastman Johnson, while on an expedition 
through the Middle West in 1856 and 1857. 

The results of the expedition to James Bay and vicinity by Mr. 
Alanson Skinner, of the Department of Anthropology, are most important 
in that he obtained not only interesting ethnological material from the 
Cree Indians, but also much new and valuable information regarding 
their religious and social customs. The Cree are essentially hunters, 
and the complete set of specimens brought hack by this expedition will 
add much to the ethnological interest of the collections already installed 
in our halls. An attempt to study the Xaskapi, a little-known tribe 
formerly frequenting the east coast of Hudson Bay, was fruitless, since 
the Indians now remain in the country bordering the Atlantic. Mr. 
Skinner and his party traveled more than a thousand miles in an 18-foot 
canoe, had many thrilling experiences and narrowly escaped starvation 
while returning through the forests of northern Canada. A full account 
of the expedition and its results is reserved for a future number of the 
Journal. 

A recent letter from [Mr. Y. Stefansson. who, with Mr. I\. M. 
Anderson, left Xew York City in April on an expedition to the mouth 



94 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

of the Mackenzie River and the adjacent country, under the auspices of 
this Museum and the Geological Survey of Canada, reports the success- 
ful arrival of the party at Smith's Landing on the Slave Paver, from which 
point they were planning to push on to MacPherson in time to make 
connections with the mail leaving there about the middle of July. The 
expedition was organized for the purpose of making scientific studies 
of the Eskimo of the country, of procuring as exhaustive collections as 
possible illustrating not only the material cultures of the uncivilized 
tribes of the region, but also the zoological conditions which prevail 
there, and of increasing our knowledge of the geological formations of 
that portion of the world. The expedition will begin its return journey 
during the summer of 1909. 

Mr. Roy C. Andrews, of the Department of Mammalogy, returned 
to the Museum September 10 after spending several months among 
the whaling stations of Vancouver Island and vicinity. He reports 
that he has secured a fine skeleton of a Humpback Whale, together with 
a complete set of baleen. He measured, photographed and took full 
descriptive notes upon more than seventy five whales representing 
four species, paying particular attention to their external and osteological 
characters with a view to showing individual variation. There being 
a scarcity of Sulphurbottom Whales at Victoria, B. C, Mr. Andrews 
went to KyiKjiiot, on the other side of Vancouver Island, where he 
studied not only these animals but also an exceptionally large Sperm 
Whale. Before returning to the Museum he visited Admiralty Island, 
Alaska, where Finback Whales were so plentiful that he saw 200 of them 
in one school. 

During his recent trip to Florida, Mr. Chapman secured a series 
of moving pictures of pelicans on Pelican Island, showing the habits of 
the birds during the nesting period. These pictures will be of particular 
interest, as evidencing the results of the protection which has been ac- 
corded the birds for the past five years. 



LECTURE ANNOUNCEMENTS 95 

LECTURE ANNOUNCEMENTS. 

MEMBERS' COURSE. 

The first course of lectures for the season 1908-1900 to Members of the 
Museum and persons holding complimentary tickets given them by Members 
will be given in November and December. 

PUPILS' COURSE. 
The lectures to Public School children will be resumed in October. 

PEOPLE'S COURSE. 

Given in cooperation with the City Department of Education. 

Saturday evenings at 8 o'clock. Doors open at 7:30. 

Professor Charles Baskerville, of the College of the City of New 
York, — a course of six illustrated lectures on chemistry. 

October 3. — "Hvdrogen and Oxygen." 

October 10. — "Carbon and Its Compounds." 

October 17. — "Nitrogen and Its Compounds." 

October 24. — "Sulphur and Its Compounds." 

October 31. — "Phosphorus and Its Compounds." 

November 7. — "Sodium, Potassium and Calcium, and Their Compounds." 

Tuesday evenings at 8 o'clock. Doors open at 7:30. 

October 6. — Mr. and Mrs. William B. Humphrey, "The Songs and 
Basketry of the North American Indians." Illus- 
trated by songs and specimens. 

October 13. — Mr. Iyexxeth Bruce, "The Historic Hudson." Illus- 
trated by stereopticon views. 

October 20. — Mr. Frederick M. Brooks, "Alaska of To-day." 
Illustrated by stereopticon views. 

October 27. — Professor Philaxder P. Claxtox*, of the University of 
Tennessee, "The New South." 

Children are not admitted to these lectures, except on presentation of a 
Museum Member's Card. 



96 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM .JOURNAL 

MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

Publk* meetings of the New York Academy of Sciences and Affiliated 
Societies are held at the Museum according to the following schedule: 

On Monday evenings, The New York Academy of Sciences : 

First Mondays, Section of Geology and Mineralogy. 

Second Mondays, Section of Biology. 

Third Mondays, Section of Astronomy, Physics and Chemistry. 

Fourth Mondays, Section of Anthropology and Psychology. 

On Tuesday evenings, as announced: 

The Linnsean Society, The New York Entomological Society and 
The Torrey Botanical Club. 

On Wednesday evenings, as announced: 
The New York Mineralogical Club. 

On Friday evenings, as announced: 
The New York Microscopical Society. 

The programmes of the meetings of the respective organizations are pub- 
lished in the weekly Bulletin of the New York Academy of Sciences and 
sent to the members of the several societies. Members of the Museum on 
making request of the Director will be provided with the Bulletin as issued. 



The American riuseum Journal 



Edmund Otis Hovey, Editor. 
Frank M. Chapman, ) 
Louis P. Gratacap, > Advisory Board. 
William K. Gregory. ) 

Subscription, One Dollar per year. Fifteen Cents per ropy. 

A subscription to the Journal is included in the membership fees of all classes of Members of 

the Museum. 

Subscriptions should be addressed to The American Museum Journal, 30 Boylston St., Cam- 
bridge, Mass., or 77th St. and Central Park West, New York City. 



Entered as second-class matter January 12, 1907, at the Post-office at Boston, Mass. 
Act of Congress, July 16, 1894. 




LOUISIANA HERON IN CUTHBERT ROOKERY 



98 



The American Museum Journal 



Vol. VIII NOVEMBER, 1908 No. 7 



CUTHBERT ROOKERY. 

CUTHBERT ROOKERY is probably the last rookery in Florida 
at all comparable with those great gatherings of nesting birds 
formerly common throughout the state. Rookeries of Ibises, 
of Cormorants, of Little Bine and Louisiana Herons and of other non- 
plume-bearing birds may still be found by those who know where to 
look for them, but at Cuthbert alone, so far as I am aware, will one 
find all the birds mentioned, together with Spoonbills and American 
and Snowy Egrets. This rookery is situated in what the maps term 
the "Great Mangrove Swamp," which borders the Everglades at the 
southern extremity of Florida, and is about seven miles from the coast 
at a point known as Snake Bight, some twelve miles east of the settle- 
ment of Flamingo. The proposed extension of the Florida East Coast 
railroad to Cape Sable would have passed within a mile or two of it. 

Cuthbert is well known to every "plumer," or plume hunter, of 
South Florida. It has been "shot out" repeatedly, but its isolation 
and comparative inaccessibility, together with the absence of fresh 
water make it worthy the plumer's attention only when the progeny of 
the birds which have escaped the last raid have become sufficiently 
numerous to repay the hunter for the exertion and privation of a visit. 
The isolation of Cuthbert also makes it a refuge for birds which have 
been "broke up" in less remote places, and it is not improbable that the 
last Snowy Egret and Roseate Spoonbill of Florida will be shot here. 

I made four attempts to reach Cuthbert Rookery before succeeding. 
In May, 1904, while en route to it, I was intercepted by Warden Bradley 
in the Kevs, near Tavenier Creek, with news that the rookery had been 
"shot out." Under his guardianship, the "white birds" had increased 
to numbers, which, with aigrettes selling at thirty-two dollars an ounce, 
made the venture worth the risk. The warden was watched and in 
his absence his charges were slaughtered. The man who was with 

99 



100 



THE AM ERIC AX MUSEUM JOURNAL 



Bradley when he returned to the rookery told me, "You could a-walked 
right around the ruke-ry on them birds' bodies; between four and five 
hundred of 'em." 

The following year, while working toward Cuthbert, my outfit was 
destroyed by fire, and operations were of necessity postponed. That 
summer Bradley was shot while on duty, a death he had long predicted 
for himself, and I made no further effort to visit the rookery until 1907, 
when the plan was defeated by conditions encountered in the Bahamas. 



& 



•- ' VMB 







<£? » 



MAKING A SKETCH FOR THE BACKGROUND OF THE CUTHBERT ROOKERY GROUP. 



In 1908, however, the trip was made without mishap and, once started, 
proved to be by no means a difficult undertaking. My special object 
in visiting Cuthbert was to make studies on which to base a group of 
Roseate Spoonbills. Fortunately the rookery was found to contain 
between thirty and forty of these rare birds, together with a dozen Snowy 
Egrets, three or four hundred American Egrets, at least two thousand 
Louisiana Herons, with some fifty Little Bine Herons, several hundred 
AMiite Ibises and a few Cormorants. The Spoonbills and Herons were 



S TEFA NSSON-A XDERSOX EXP ED I TIOX 101 

nesting and it was decided to increase the size of the group to include 
not only the Spoonbills, but also the birds that were nesting with them, 
thus reproducing a bird "rookery," once so characteristic of Florida. 

F. M. Chapman. 



THE STEFANSSON-ANDERSON ARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

THE adventures and vicissitudes of an expedition into the Arctic- 
regions are well shown in letters recently received from Mr. V. 
Stefansson, who, as already related in the Jourxal, left Xew 
York last April to spend a year and a half or two years and a half among 
the Eskimo living along the northern coast of the North American 
continent, particularly east of the delta of the Mackenzie River. In 
the October Journal mention was made of Mr. Stefansson's having 
reached Smith's Landing, or Fort Smith, on the Slave River early in 
June. He and his associate, Dr. R. M. Anderson, left Fort Smith June 
11, floated down the river in scows, were towed by a small steamer three 
days' journey across Great Slave Lake and thence down the Mackenzie 
River, arriving on July 2 at Fort Xorman, which is at the inflow of Bear 
Lake River. Leaving Dr. Anderson temporarily at Fort Xorman, 
Mr. Stefansson was towed in his own whaleboat (obtained on Great 
Slave Lake) down the Mackenzie and up Peel's River to Fort Macpher- 
son, where he arrived July (3. Nine days later Dr. Anderson joined 
Mr. Stefansson at Fort Macpherson, and on July 16 the two associates 
left for Herschel Island, Arctic Ocean, after securing a second whaleboat. 
The narrative may best lie continued by quotations from Mr. Stefansson's 
letters : 

''Herschel Islam-, August 9, 1908. 

"***** We had rather unfavorable weather and did not reach Herschel 

Island until July 29th, a rather slow passage, although we made every effort 

to hurry. It had been my intention to proceed at once to Flaxman Island 

to see Mr. LeffingweH, 1 but two things deterred me, — it was already late 

1 Mr. E. DeK. Leffingwell was a member of the Mikkelsen-Leffingwell Polar Expe- 
dition which went north in 1906 and of which Mr. Stefansson was the ethnologist for 
more than a year. After the expedition dissolved, Mr. Leffingwell remained in the 
North to do geographical work along the Arctic coast of Alaska. Editor. 




MAP OF NORTHWESTERN CANADA AND ALASKA, INCLUDING THE REGION TRAVERSED BY THE. 
STEFANSSON-ANDERSON POLAR EXPEDITION. 



102 



BKHtOW",'! AUGUST 20-29 



HERSCHtL I51AN0.»JULY 29 -AUGUST 15 



n. MACPHER50N^- JULV 6 - 18 



f\ NORMAN - JULY 2 



» J^UNE.2 7 

'" ,'jUNE2* 
I 

F! SMITH \MAY29-JU*E u 

F'CHIPEWYAK> MAY 22 



athabasca lahoimc/ l"ay 4-7 

edmonton'appilSO-mayz 

ROUTE AND ITINERARY OF THE STEFANSSON- 
ANDERSON ARCTIC EXPEDITION. APR' 
TO AUGUST 29, 1908 



STEFANSSON-ANDERSON EXPEDITION 103 

for going so far, for the whaling ships which I hoped to meet might pass 
Flaxman before I got there, and the police at Herschel had heard rumors to 
the effect that Mr. Leffingwell had gone west to Point Barrow in the spring 
to meet the whaling ships there. I therefore camped at Flanders Point 
on Herschel Island (the southeast corner of the island, sonic five miles from 
the whalemen's harbor) where we have since then been catching about 
sufficient fish for the dogs and ourselves. 

"But we have waited in vain for the ships. The ice conditions, so far 
as can be learnt from here, are the worst in years. A native family that has 
just come in from about forty miles west along the coast, reports big ice 
everywhere so far to seaward as they could see from the highest hills. People 
here (five policemen, one of whom has been here some seven years; two 
sailors, one of whom has been whaling around Herschel since iss«), and all 
the natives) have about given up hope of ships coming in this year. Of 
course nobody knows; they may be less than twenty miles away as I write 

"At present we have on hand supplies as follows: § of a sack of flour 
(about 35 lbs.), five pounds of rice, five pounds of tea, one pound of salt and 
about fifty pounds of dried fish. The fish we have caught have been con- 
sumed from day to day, and literally nothing in the line of food, tobacco, 
etc., can be bought, of course, at any price. Here at the Island some two 
hundred Eskimos are waiting in the hope of ships with which to trade for 
furs, and scarce a family of them has enough food for itself. Two families 
of Eskimos have attached themselves to our fortunes, so it is evident that our 
party of eight persons and twenty dogs will leave here for whatever journey 
is undertaken with rather scant rations in prospect for the first few days till 
we get to some favorable hunting and fishing location. 

"Evidently we have made a mistake in relying at all on whalers, but in 
an ordinary season not to make use of them would be an equally grave 
mistake. Xow, however, we have not even a month's supply of matches. 
Tea, tobacco and matches are considered the three essentials in this country. 

"In going wot our plan, in general, is about as follow-: We shall not 
attempt to take the route inside the reefs, tho' it is safer, but shall keep 
outside for the purpose of meeting any ship that may chance to be coming 
eastward. At Flaxman Island or near there we expect to leave some of our 
party and most of our dogs (counting those owned by the natives, we have 
20 now) and keep on going for Point Barrow where I expect Leffingwell is 
now and whither the whaling ships and revenue cutter are almost sure to 
have penetrated. At that place we may be able to get some supplies, — at 
least we should be able to get matches and tobacco. 



104 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

"If we have reasonable luck we shall be able to get east again from 
Barrow with our boats to whatever point we decide upon for wintering; 
meantime we hope that the part of our crowd we leave behind will be able 
to get together a small supply of fish and possibly a few deer. We may also 
have a little time for digging in ruins when delayed by head winds going to 
and coming from Barrow." 

"Poixt Barrow, Alaska, August 22nd, 1908. 

"We left Herschel Island August loth, proceeding westward in the 
hope of either getting matches and such other things as we most needed at 
Flaxman Island (from Mr. Leffingwell) or from Point Barrow, and hoping 
to winter on the Colville or east of it. 

"Towards evening of August Kith the whaler ' Karluk ' came in sight 
from the east and I boarded her some 20 miles west of Herschel Island, — 
we had had unfavorable winds. His food supply was so short that he did 
not care to take our party and all our dogs, but was willing to take me and 
one boat to some place where I should be able to get supplies (matches, etc.) 
to proceed with eastward. He expected to meet the incoming whaler 'any- 
where between Herschel and Barrow, but probably east of Flaxman.' I 
asked Dr. Anderson with two boats and three Eskimos to proceed westward 
along the coast till they came to some promising hunting or fishing locality. 

"I intended going ashore at Flaxman to see whether Mr. Leffingwell 
could supply our needs, but he saved me this by coming on board, asking 
Capt. Wing to take him as a passenger ' for the outside," which ('apt. Wing 
did. Mr. Leffingwell said he had given the natives all his matches, had no 
tobacco and practically no coal oil, — and what he had was mostly pledged. 
Fortunately Ik- was owing one of my Eskimos 10 gallons of coal oil, and this 
he had left for him at Flaxman. Evidently there was nothing for me to do 
but go to Point Barrow, some 225 miles farther west. 

"All the way from Herschel to 12 miles east of Point Barrow ice condi- 
tions were unusually bad for this time of year, still we got through, hut with 
frequent delays. But the evening of August 19th the 'Karluk' was stopped 
by impenetrable ice some 10 or 12 miles east of Point Harrow (the north tip 
of the continent). From that point and for some 10 or 50 miles beyond, at 
least, the ice is solid, — impassable for any ships, large or small. 

"When the 'Karluk' was stopped, we immediately got into our boat, for 
there was water enough along the shore for a whaleboat, and proceeded to 
Cape Smith, some 12 miles beyond (west of) Point Barrow, and Mr. Leffing- 
well came with me. Here we were warmly welcomed by Mr. Charles 
Brower, the master of the whaling station, and invited to stay with him so 
long as we liked. 



STEFAXSSOX-AXDERSOX EXPEDITION 105 

" INIr. Brow vr has been here since 1885 and has never seen ice conditions 
even approximately so had as this summer. The ice has been motionless 
since spring, and it is his opinion that no ship has penetrated beyond Icy 
Cape, some 150 miles west of here, and that any ship should get here is 
almost hopeless now, for the freeze-up is near at hand. 

"Although Mr. Brower has almost nothing of the many things he needs 
for himself, he can supply two of our most pressing wants, — he has plenty 
of matches and tobacco. It is hopeless to proceed in my boat farther west 
along the coast, for should we find the ships at Icy Cape, it is almost certain 
we should get frozen in west of Point Barrow on our return. The fall 
freeze-up, Mr. Brower says, came one year as early as August 20th. We 
shall therefore start east next Monday (this is Saturday), weather permitting. 

"lou probably remember that when planning spending a year in the 
Colville country I counted on supplies at Flaxman Island, for, as I believe 
I said to you, it is feasible to make one's living cast of the Mackenzie, but 
the Colville is a 'starvation country. 5 Now we shall have to try it without 
supplies, and I am a little worried over the prospect. If the ice conditions 
are good, we may of course get plenty of seal, but last winter the seal supply 
was insufficient. That is one reason, I believe, why Mr. Leffingwell's 
supplies an- so nearly exhausted. 

"If we do starve, my plan is as follows: I shall divide up the party of 
Eskimos and ask Dr. Anderson to take some of them and go to Point Barrow. 
It is likely that some whales will be caught here this fall, and people here 
won't probably starve. By November there will be news, too, of how far 
the ships got, and if there is no food here, there will probably have been 
landed supplies at Icy Cape, and Dr. Anderson can go there. * * * If ships. 
come in next summer, he can come east with them (unless he sees some good 
reason for not doing so) but if no ship comes he will probably have to go out 
by way of Point Hope and Nome. 

"Whether or not Dr. Anderson goes to Point Barrow as above (for some 
circumstance may make it seem wiser for both of us to go east) I shall proba- 
bly go east, if food is insufficient around Flaxman and the Colville, and get 
into the game and fish country somehow. I expect then to be able to meet 
the summer mail through Macpherson and to proceed to Baillie Island. 
There I hope to meet the whalers, if they come in, and to be independent of 
them if they don't." 

"Point Barrow, August 29th, 1908. 
"Fortunately the wind turned promising (from northeast) Monday last, 
so we did not start east, but waited in the hope of ships. The wind con- 
tinued steady and strong; the ice broke Tuesday and drifted from shore; 



106 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

Wednesday the ships came in, but wen- unable to proceed beyond the Point 
and will turn back in a few days." 

From the whalers Mr. Stefansson secured about four tons of provi- 
sions and other necessaries, thus removing all fears of starvation, and 
with a small sloop which he was able to charter at Point Barrow he was 
going to lose no time in starting for Herschel Island again, taking with 
him Mr. Storker Storkerson, Mr. Leflmgwell's most efficient assistant. 



THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECONNAISSANCE OF WYOMING. 

THE archaeological reconnaissance of Wyoming, which was be- 
gun for the Museum last year was continued by a trip this 
summer throughout the northeastern part of the State. 'Phis 
whole work has been undertaken as a contribution towards an investi- 
gation into the archaeology of a vast region, including the Great Plains, 
the Barren Lands and the Plateau region of America, a region Larger 
than the entire remaining portion of tin- continent, and regarding which 
there is practically no archaeological knowledge or available specimens 
from which to secure such knowledge. 

Wyoming is located near the southern center of tin-- region, and 
seemed to he the nucleus from which the work might he started. The 
task was to look over the field in order to locate sites where it would be 
profitable to carry on detailed investigations, incidently securing as 
much information as possible. 

Among the general problems which are awaiting solution may he 
mentioned the following: 1, — When was the region first inhabited? 
2, — What was the material culture of the people? •'!. — Were people 
living in the region before the introduction of the horse; and if there 
were, how did the coming of this valuable animal affect their culture? 
4, — Was there more than one culture in the region; and if there was, 
where may the boundaries of the culture areas he found ? 

Securing the services of an experienced cow man with a wagon and 
team, 1 made a trip of more than 450 miles, circling the northeastern 
portion of Wyoming. The journey was begun at "Nine Bar" Ranch, 
at the southern end of Rawhide Buttes, extended northward across the 
'" had land " sheep country as tar as Newcastle, on the edge of the Black 



ARCHEOLOGY OF WYOMING 



107 



Hills; thence westward across the treeless sheep and cattle country to 

Sheridan, near the Big Horn Mountains; thence southward to Casper. 

Besides taking photographs, making observations and securing notes 

from the -tattered inhabitants of the region regarding archaeological 
sites, pictographs, petroglyphs, prehistoric quarries and artifacts, several 
rather important places were discovered. 

A large quarry was found where the early inhabitants of the region, 




BREASTWORK MADE BY INDiANS IN A ROCK-SHELTER 

Oil Creek. Black Hill*. Wyoming. The walls bear petroglyphs. 



who, at that time, must have beeu unaffected by contact with the white 
race, secured stone out of which to make their knife-blade-, spear-heads, 
arrow-points, scrapers, drills and similar implement-. This quarry 
was located on the southern end of Browell Hill, which in the East would 
be called a considerable mountain, about a mile east of the junction of 
Hat Creek and Old Woman Creek. There were numerous pits in the 



108 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 



top of this hill, going down into strata carrying seams and nodules of 
close-grained quartzite and similar rocks. Scattered about these pits 
were the battered pebbles which had been used as hammers. Some of 
these had a groove pecked around them to facilitate the fastening of a 
handle. 

This quarry is remarkable for its extent, covering about five acres. 
It is also farther north than any prehistoric quarries of such stone pre- 



1 ■ v - 

V. 


I *\w. 




1 

• 


* 





PETROGLYPH REPRESENTING A MAN 

Oil Creek. Of same type as one found in 1907 at Hammond, Wyo . and 
another found in L908 in Big Horn Mtv. 



viously known to exist in the state, and, taken with similar quarries 
visited last year, it emphasizes the truly tremendous amount of quarry- 
ing which has been done in Wyoming. The extent of this quarry work 
seems the more marvelous when we know that the region where the bulk 
of the quarried material was used has not yet been found. This is quite 



ARCHAEOLOGY OF WYOMING 109* 

probably farther east, but west of the Missouri River. Perhaps much 
of it will be found in the North Platte valley. 

Petroglyphs were seen and photographed on the sandstone cliffs and 
cave walls of Oil Creek, which is on the edge of the Black Hills, some six. 
miles west of Newcastle. Some of these petroglyphs were identical in 
character with those found last year near Hammond in the southern 
part of the state. Pictographs, one of them in red, and the others in 
black and drab, were found in a large sandstone cave overlooking the 
northern side of Muddy Creek in the foothills of the Big Horn Moun- 
tains, about fourteen miles southwest of Buffalo. Some of these also 
resembled the Hammond petroglyphs in outline. Others seemed to 
represent shields and similar objects used by the recent Plains Indians. 
Along the route were seen numerous circles of stone marking ancient 
house sites and a few piles of rock of problematic use, both classes of 
remains resembling those seen last year in the southeastern part of the 
state. Nothing, however, was found to indicate that any of the remains 
were as recent as the coming of the first white men to the region, since 
no glass beads, iron arrowpoints or similar materials were found associ- 
ated with them. On the other hand, nothing was seen which would 
prove their great antiquity, or show that they were older than the 
securing of the horse by the native peoples who formerly lived in this 
part of the country. 

While, of course, these results are hardly sufficient to prove that man 
did not occupy the region until after the introduction of the horse gave 
him a beast which would facilitate his movements out into the buffalo 
plains, and until after the settlements in the east had begun to crowd 
the Indians westward, nevertheless this negative evidence suggests quite 
strongly that at least a portion of the Great Plains was uninhabited until 
after the horse was known to the Indians. There are certainly no deep 
deposits of village refuse or many antiquities to be found in the region, 
such as are easily discovered in places that are known to have been 
inhabited for a period antedating the coming of the horse, as for instance 
Ohio and the state of Washington. To be sure, the results of quarry- 
ing are extensive, a great deal of stone having been removed, but those 
who know the real Indian are aware that this work could have been 
done in a comparatively short period of time. 

While, on the whole, the results of the two archieological trips to 
Wyoming suggest that that particular region was not inhabited until:. 



1 10 THE A MERIC 1 N MUSEUM JO URN. 1 L 

after the advent of the horse, yet such a conclusion cannot be definitely 
reached without an accumulation of negative archaeological evidence, 
or without making sure that mythological, ethnological or historical 
evidence may not eventually lead to an opposite conclusion. 

Harlan [. Smith. 



MUSEUM NEWS NOTES. 



IN the interest of the collection of fossil fishes, Professor Bashford 
Dean recently visited several European collecting localities and 
has brought to the Museum a number of accessions. Tims he 
secured in the region of Solnhofen some exquisite and rare ganoids. 
in Weymouth several pycnodonts, in the Forfar country lungfishes and 
placoderms, in the north of Scotland (Lhambryde) placoderms and the 
curious and primitive "shark" Psammosteus. Exchanges also were 
arranged, notably with the museum of Newcastle-on-Tyne, and a col- 
lection of Scottish Devonian fishes has recently been received from 
the Edinburgh Museum. By purchase the Department has come into 
the possession of upward of two hundred teeth of a Tertiary species of 
the shark Carcharodon, by means of which it will be possible to re- 
construct the dentition of this, the most formidable shark that probably 
ever existed. Single teeth attained a height of more than six inches, 
and the span of the mouth could hardly have been less than ten feet. 

Dr. R. M. Anderson, who accompanied Mr. Stefansson to the Arctic 

regions for the purpose of collecting birds and mammals and making 
meteorological observations, has sent in a report under date of August 
11 from Herschel Island. All the way from Athabasca Landing through 
the great series of rivers and lakes leading into the [Mackenzie River 
and down that stream to the Arctic Ocean hunting was done at every 
opportunity. Considerable material in the line of birds was obtained, 
but mammals of all kinds were found to be extremely scarce, in fact this 
has proven to be a trying season for the Indians, because it has been so 
difficult to get furs. 

Thk delegates to the International Fisheries Congress that met at 
Washington September 22-25 passed through New York on Monday, 



LECTURES 111 

September 28 en route to Buzzard's Bay, Boston and Gloucester and were 
entertained at luncheon at the Museum by President Osborn. Mr. 
Roy W. Miner, assistant curator of invertebrate zoology, received a 
prize at the Congress for an article upon "A Plan for an Educational 
Exhibit of Fishes" and Mr. Dwight Franklin of the same department 
received one for a paper entitled "A Method of Preparing Fishes for 
Museum Exhibition Purposes." 

Mrs. Armar D. Saunderson has recently presented to the Museum 
valuable mounted specimens of the Bongo Antelope and the Bush or 
Giant Pig. Mrs. Saunderson, while on a hunting trip last winter, ob- 
tained these specimens from natives in Eldamo Ravine, British East 
Africa, and had them mounted in London. The animals are rare and 
the species are entirely new to the Museum collection. 

Since our last issue the following persons have been elected to Mem- 
bership in the Museum: Life Members, Misses Emma H. Lockwood and 
Clara B. Spence; Annual Members, Messrs. William C. Allen, C. 
Forster Cooper, John P. Dreyer, William T. Blodgett, Herman 
J. Eekhoff, Henry Ruhlender and J. H. Eilbeck and Mrs. Joseph 
Pulitzer. 

Mr. and Mrs. Waldemar Jochelson, who were members of the 
Jesup North Pacific Expedition, were guests at the Museum during 
October, while making studies of some of our Alaskan material. 
Mr. and Mrs. Jochelson are on their way to the Aleutian Islands to 
prosecute extensive ethnological studies under the auspices of the 
Russian Imperial Geographical Society of St. Petersburg. 



LECTURE ANNOUNCEMENTS. 

MEMBERS' COURSE. 

The first course of illustrated lectures for the season 1908-1909 to Mem- 
bers of the Museum and persons holding complimentary tickets given them 
by Members will be given in November and December. 

Thursday evenings at 8:15 o'clock. Doors open at 7:4.5 p. m. 
November 12. — William A. Bryan, of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Mu- 
seum of Honolulu, "Kilauea in Action. A Visit to 
Hawaii's Famous Volcano." (Illustrated with mov- 
ing pictures.) 



112 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

November 19. — Frank M. Chapman, "Florida Bird Life." (Illustrated 

with moving pictures.) 
December 3. — Henry E. Crampton, "Tahiti and the Society Islands." 
December 10. — Nathaniel L. Britton, "Some Native Trees, Their 

Flowers and Fruits." 
December 17. — Roy C. Andrews, "Whale Hunting with a Camera." 

PUPILS' COURSE. 

These lectures are open to the pupils of the public schools when accom- 
panied by their teachers and to the children of Members of the Museum on 
the presentation of Membership tickets. 

Lectures begin at 4 p. M. 

Oct. Nov. 

Monday, 26 16.— "New York City — Past and Present." Bv Roy 

W. Mixer. 
Wednesday, 28 18. — "Commercial Centers of Europe." By Edmund 

Otis Hovey. 
Friday, 30 20.— "Scenes from Pole to Pole." Bv Roy C. Andrews. 

Nov. 

Monday. 2 23. — "Our South American Neighbors." By Walter 

Granger. 

Dec. 

Wednesday, 4 2. — "'Hiawatha's' People." By Harlan I. Smith. 
Friday, 6 4. — "Industries of the United States." By Roy W. 

Miner. 
Monday. ( .t 7. — "Among the Filipinos." By Rov C. ANDREWS. 

Wednesday. 11 9. — "Physical Geography from Pictures." Bv Edmund 

Otis Hovey. 
Friday. 13 11. — "Home Life of American Birds." By Frank M. 

Chapman. 

LEGAL HOLIDAY COURSE. 
Open free to the public. Fully illustrated. No tickets required. 
Thanksgiving Day, November 26, 3:15 p. m. Doors open at 2:45 P. m. 
" Yolcanoes, Ancient and Modern." By Edmund ( his Hovey. 

COLUMBIA UND7ERSITY COURSE. 
.Ilsii- Lectures. 

Ciyi'.n in cooperation with Columbia University. 
Wednesday evenings at 8: L5 o'clock. 

A course of ten lectures on light by Richard C. Maclaurin, LL.D., 
Sc.D., Professor of Mathematical Physics in Columbia University. 

November 18. — "Object of course. Newton's experiments and contri- 
butions to optical theory." 



January 


13 


January 


20. 


January 


27. 


February 


3. 



LECTURES 113 

November 25. — "Color vision and color photography." 

December 2. — "Dispersion and absorption of light. Recent theories. 

Electron-. 
December 9. — "Spectroscopy. Applications to chemistry and astronomy." 
December Hi. — "Polarization, with .some applications to chemistry and 

molecular physics." 
January 6. — "The exact laws of reflection and refraction and their 
bearing on the construction of optical instruments." 
"Optical properties of crystals." 

"The principle of interference and its explanation of vari- 
ous color phenomena." 
"The measurement of light wave- and the theory of dif- 
fraction." 
"Some relations between light and electricity." 

PEOPLE'S I I >URSE. 

Given in cooperation with the City Department of Education. 
Saturday evenings at 8 o'clock. Doors open at 7:30. 

Professor Charles Baskerville, of the College of the City of New 
York, — the last of a course of six lectures on chemistry, illustrated by 

experiments and stereopticon view-. 

November 7. — "Sodium. Potassium and < !alcium, and Their Compounds." 

Professor Bradley Stoughton of Columbia University, — a course of 
six lectures on metallurgy, illustrated by experiment- and stereopticon views. 

November 14. — "The Metallurgy of Iron and Steel." 

November 21. — "The Making of Iron." 

November 28. - "The Making of Steel." 

December 5. — "The Uses of Iron and Steel in Machine Shops and Bridges 

and other great Engineering Structures." 
December 12. — "The Rolling and Forging of Iron and Steel." 
December 19. — "The Heat Treatment of Steel." 

Tuesday evening- at 8 o'clock. Door- open at 7:3! >. 

November 3. — Mr. Charles Everett Beane, "Newfoundland." Illus- 
trated by stereopticon view- and motion pictures. 

November 10. — Mr. R. Cornelius Rabt, "The Texan and His State." 
Illustrated by stereopticon view-. 

November 17. — Mr. Isaac F. Smith. "The City of Mexico." Illustrated 
by -tereopticon view-. 

Mr. Charles M. Pepper, of the Department of Commerce and Labor, 
— four illustrated lectures on "The Twentieth Century South America." 

November 24. — "Panama to Patagonia." 

December 1. — "Argentine, the World'- Wheatfield." 



114 THE AM ERICA X MUSEUM JOURNAL 

December 8. — "The Vastness of Brazil.'' 
December 15. — "Colombia and the Andes." 

Children are not admitted to the lectures of the People's Course, except 
on presentation of a Museum Member's Card. 

SPECIAL EXHIBITIONS. 

November 13. First public view of the mounted skeleton of the famous 
race horse "Sysonbv"; new fossil horses obtained in Nebraska by last 
summer's expeditions; re-arranged alcove illustrating the evolution of the 
horse. This exhibition will continue for several weeks. 

November 17-20. Fall exhibition of the Horticultural Society of New 
York, in co-operation with the Museum. The exhibition will be open on 
Tuesday after 7 o'clock p. m., especially for the members of the Museum, 
the Society and affiliated organizations. On Wednesday and Thursday 
from 9 A. M. until 10 P. M., and on Friday from 9 a. m. until 5 P. m., the 
exhibition will be open to the general public. 

In response to a request from the Committee on the Prevention of Tuber- 
culosis of the Charity Organization Society of New York, the exhibition 
made at Washington in connection with the recent International Tuber- 
culosis ( 'ongress is to he brought to New York and displayed at the Museum. 
This exhibition, which has already aroused wide-spread interest, will illus- 
trate the work done and in progress in several states of the Union and in 
the more progressive countries abroad. The exhibition will be opened in 
the latter part of November and will continue for about four weeks. It 
will be installed in the new Columbus Avenue wing of the Museum and will 
be open to the public during the usual hours. Additional particulars will 
be published in the daily newspapers. 

MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

Public meetings of the New York Academy of Sciences and Affiliated 
Societies will be held at the Museum according to the usual schedule. 



The American Huseum Journal 

Subscription, One Dollar per year. Fifteen Cents per copy. 
A subscription to the Journal is included in the membership fees of all classes of Members of 

the Museum. 
Subscriptions should be addressed to The American Museum Journal. 30 Boylston St., Cam- 
bridge, Mass., or 77th St. and Central Calk West. New York City. 



Entered as seroiid-ehi<s matter January 12. 1907. at the Post-office at Boston, Mass. 
A. 1 ol Congress, Jul\ Id. IVM. 



The American Museum Journal 



Vol. VIII DECEMBER, 1908 No. S 



EXHIBIT ILLUSTRATING THE EVOLUTION OF THE HORSE. 

OX Friday, November 13, there was opened in the Hall of Fossil 
Mammals a special exhibit illustrating the evolution of the 
horse, at which was given the first public view of the mounted 
skeleton of the celebrated horse "Sysonby." 

Sysonby was one of America's most famous race horses. He was 
foaled, February 7, 1002, at Mr. James R. Keene's Castleton stud in 
Kentucky, a few months after the importation from England of his 
dam "Optime," his sire being "Melton," also English bred. Sysonby's 
record is one of the most brilliant in the history of American horse racing. 
He won a remarkable series of victories between his first race at Brighton 
Beach, July 14, 1004, as a two-year old, and his death at four year-- of 
age (June 17th, 1000). Mr. Keene generously presented the skeleton 
to the Museum and provided for its preparation and installation. 

The mount represents a characteristic phase in the stride of a running 
horse and was prepared by Mr. S. H. Chubb under the direction of 
Professor Henry Fairfield Osborn, the work being based upon direct 
observation and instantaneous photographs of Sysonby and other race 
horses taken by E. Muybridge, J. C. Hemment and S. H. Chubb. The 
position is that taken the moment after the right fore foot has left the 
ground, and the right "knee," or carpus, is beginning to bend; the suc- 
ceeding foot-falls in order are, left hind foot, right hind foot, left fore 
foot, right fore foot. The length of a complete stride is about 26 feet. 

At this instant the hind quarters and limbs are lifted perceptibly 
higher than the shoulders, and from a rear view it will be seen that, 
while the hind feet are thrust forward at a great height from the ground, 
they are widely separated from each other so as to avoid striking the fore 
legs. A moment later the shoulders will be lifted by the push of the 
fore foot higher than the hind quarters, then the hind feet will move to- 
ward the median line and strike the ground, while the fore feet will move 
forward out of the way of the hind. 

117 



118 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

The back bone is slightly arched to help draw together the fore and 
hind limbs and feet, and thus lengthen the stride and bring the back 
muscles into play. When viewed from above, the back bone is also 
observed to be curved a little to the right, owing to the forward position 
of the left side of the pelvis and of the left hind limb; this also lengthens 
and gives power to the stride ;is the back bone is straightened. 

The American Museum has made a specialty of the study of the 
evolution of the Horse, as one of the most striking and best known 
examples of evolution, and the present exhibit two phases of it: First, 
the Evolution of the Horse in Nature, showing how and why the horse 
came into existence; Second, the Evolution of the Horse under Domes- 
tication, showing the different races which have been evolved by man 
through selection and breeding. 

The first phase is illustrated by the series of fossil ancestors of the 
horse in successive geological epochs. These are represented by com- 
plete skeletons of nine stages in the ancestry of the Horse, and numerous 
skulls and parts of skeletons showing every intermediate gradation from 
the earliest ancestor, no larger than a terrier dog. to the modern descend- 
ants. These are chiefly from the "badlands" of the arid Western 
States, where the most complete and abundant remains of fossil horses 
have been found. The specimens on exhibition in the Museum are 
arranged to show the gradual development of the peculiar characteris- 
tics which distinguish the horse from other animals, and especially the 
adaptations to swift running over the open plains which are the natural 
habitat of the animal. With each skeleton is placed a restoration show- 
ing the probable appearance ami natural surroundings of the animal 
during life. The exhibit is further illustrated by models, diagrams and 
special series showing the evolution of certain parts of the skeleton. 

The restorations of extinct horses have been made by the well known 
animal painter, Mr. (diaries R. Knight, under the supervision of Professor 
Osborn. All the modern species of wild,horse are also represented by 
careful paintings from life by Mr. Knight. 

The second phase, the evolution of the horse under domestication, is 
illustrated by a number of skeletons of different races of the horse, 
mounted with especial care and accuracy in correct and characteristic 
positions. The smallest race is the Shetland pony, the largest the great 
Percheron draught horse. The true Arabian horse is represented, and 
the latest addition to the series is the racer Sysonby. One of the most 




PHOTOGRAPHING A RACE HORSE RUNNING AT FULL SPEED 
At the American Museum of Natural History. 



119 



120 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 



striking mounts in the Horse Alcove is that of the rearing horse and 
man, showing the domination of man over this powerful animal through 
superior intelligence, in spite of relatively slight physical strength. 

The American Museum collections of fossil horses are larger than 
those of all other museums put together, but only a small part are on 
exhibition, by far the greater part being in the study collections on the 
top floor, accessible to* scientific students. Here there are preserved 





' RUNNING RACE HORSE IN ACTION. 

Instantaneous photograph taken from apparatus shown on page 1 !!•. 



hundreds of skulls and partial skeletons, thousands o\' jaws and tens of 
thousands of teeth and bones. They come from all parts of the world 
where fossil horses have been found, hut chiefly from the western bad 
lands. Some have been obtained by exchange with other museums 
or by purchase, but the greater part has been collected by expeditions 
which have been sent out vear after year since 1891. 



HORSE EX III B I T 



121 



Among the notable specimens in the series of ancestors of the horse 



are 



1 i The earliest Four-toed Horse, Eohippus, from the collection of 

the late Professor E. D. Cope, purchased by the Museum in 1894. Tins 

unique specimen was found in a Lower Eocene formation of 'Wyoming 

in 1880 by J. L. Wortman and has long been well known to scientists. 

(2) A second later stage of the Four-toed Horse, Orohippus, repre- 










SYSONBY AT FULL SPEED. 

From model prepared by E. S. Christman. 

sented by the only skeleton ever discovered. This was found by Walter 
Granger of the American Museum expedition of 1905 in southwestern 
Wyoming. It is but little larger than the Eohippus, but it shows a cer- 
tain advance toward the horse type especially in the teeth and feet. 

(3) Three complete skeletons of the early Three-toed Horses, Meso- 
hippus, showing successive increase in size, and a further advance 
toward the horse type in all details of structure; this is especially notice- 
able in the teeth and feet. These skeletons are from the Big Bad Lands 



122 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

of South Dakota, and were discovered by J. W. Gidley, H. F. Wells and 
the American Museum expedition of 1894. 

(4) A skeleton of the Three-toed Forest Horse, Hypohippus, from 
the Middle Miocene of Colorado, collected by Barnum Brown of the 
American Museum expedition of 1901. This is not a direct ancestor of 
the modern horse, but is a nearly related type, adapted to a forest country. 

(5) A skeleton of the Three-toed Desert Horse Xeohipparion from 
the Upper Miocene of South Dakota, obtained by H. F. Wells of the 
American Museum expedition of 1902. This very perfect skeleton rep- 
resents the last stage of development of the three-toed horses before the 
side toes disappeared. 

(6) A skeleton of the true native American Horse, Equus Scotti, 
extinct since the Pleistocene Epoch. This fine skeleton was found in 
Texas by J. W. Gidley of the American Museum expedition of ISO'). 
It is very much like the domesticated horse and equals it in size, but has 
in certain respects the proportions of a zebra. Wild horses were un- 
known in America when discovered by white men, though they had 
formerly been abundant. Why they became extinct no one knows. 

The Museum Expedition of last summer (1908) in Western Nebraska 
obtained a large and interesting collection of Three-toed Horses. The 
most important find was a bone bed containing thousands of jaws, teeth 
and fragments, principally of horses, but also including a great variety 
of other animals, some fifty or sixty species in all. These appear to be 
of Pliocene age, representing an intermediate stage, hitherto very little 
known in this country, between the Three-toed Horses of the Miocene 
and the One-toed Horses of the Pleistocene. It is hoped that further 
work in this interesting deposit will bring to light more complete speci- 
mens. Several incomplete skeletons of Three-toed Horses from the 
Middle and Lower Miocene formations of Western Nebraska were also 
secured, besides a fine series of skeletons and other remains of camels, 
rhinoceroses and other forms. 

One feature of the American Museum Fossil Horse collections of 
especial value to scientists is that it includes practically all the type speci- 
mens from which the various species have been described, either the 
original specimens or carefully executed plaster casts. It is intended to 
make this series absolutely complete, so that students desiring to compare 
or identify specimens will find here everything that has been described, 
and by consulting the library, can find out all that has been said about it. 



DEPARTMENT OF MIXERALOGY 123 



DEPARTMENT OF MINERALOGY. 

THROUGH Edward L. Dufourcq, the President and the Board 
of Directors of the Minas Pedrazzini Company at Arizpe, Son- 
ora, Mexico, have presented to the mineral cabinet a very 
remarkable specimen of crystallized Polybasite. This ore of silver 
(snlphantimonide of silver with some of the silver replaced by copper) 
furnishes a large part of the vein material from which the silver is ob- 
tained in this very productive mine. At favorable points there have 
developed beautifully crystallized specimens of the mineral upon a scale 
of magnitude almost unique. The entire mass as forwarded consisted 
of a crystallized surface, displaying small and large crystals, nestling 
upon an ore body of considerable size. The value in bullion of this 
unusual aggregate was §040 (SI 280 Mexican), and it probably was 
the largest mass of Polybasite ever taken from a mine entire. It suffered 
breakage in transit and separated into two specimens which were still 
of great value. Fortunately these were contrasted in ^character, since 
one contains the great tabular crystals (3 inches across) of Polybasite, 
and the other less unusual smaller crystals, intersecting and merged in 
the more irregular mass beneath. While the breaking of the specimen 
is most regrettable, the splendor of the large crystals becomes perhaps 
more imposing by this removal from their smaller and less significant 
associates. The crystals are six-sided plates of the orthorhombic sys- 
tem, slightly protuberant in the center and sharply striated or ruled. 
They intersect at nearly right angles, making a cellular box-like struc- 
ture that seems to be characteristic, since a similar disposition is observed 
in the smaller crystals. 

Some interesting minerals from the famous Broken Hill mines of 
New South Wales have been purchased through the Bruce endowment. 
This locality, which has furnished so many superb mineral examples to 
collections, notably specimens of Stolzite (lead tungstate), Cerussite, 
Anglesite, Azurite, with crystallized Cerargyrite, Embolite, and the very 
rare Minersite, has been largely exhausted, but a Mrs. Slee, the widow 
of a mining engineer employed in the mines, brought to this city a group 
of valuable specimens, representing a collection made by her husband. 
These mines are situated in the Silverton District and Barrier Ranges 
of New South Wales and have at some points yielded extraordinary 



124 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

bullion values of silver. In one case 48 tons of a ferruginous matrix 
yielded 37,000 ounces of silver, and in another case 1300 ounces of silver 
per ton was reported. The rare haloid compounds of silver have been 
found in these ores, as crystallized Cerargyrite, Embolite, Iodyrite, Brom- 
yrite ( ?), and from the collection exhibited in New York a wonderfully 
large Iodyrite (silver iodide) was obtained. The soft, waxy, greenish 
crystals are hexagonal prisms and are very large, surpassing any examples 
previously contained in the mineral collection. Crystallized brown 
Embolite (chloro-bromide of silver) implanted upon black velvety 
stalactites of Limonite was found in the series, and exquisite specimens 
have been added to our collection. 

Other additions, less notable, have been secured through the Bruce 
Fund, which still forms an invaluable means for the enrichment of the 
mineral collection. 

L. P. G. 



A 



MUSEUM NEWS NOTES. 

T the quarterly meeting of the Board of Trustees held Monday, 
November 9, the following action was taken with regard to 
certain gifts to the collections of the Museum : 

The Hon. Mason Mitchell, formerly Consul at Chung-king, 
China, was elected a Patron in recognition of his gift of ethnological 
material from Tibet and mammal skins from China. 

Mr. Henry Booth of Poughkeepsie, New York, was elected a 
Patron on account of the gift of an extensive collection of material 
representing the archaeology of Dutchess, Columbia, Putnam and 
Ulster Counties, New York. 

Dr. Walter Channing of Brookline, Massachusetts, was elected 

a Patron on account of his gift to the Museum of a large 1 collection 
of plaster casts from the hard palates of feeble-minded and normal 
human beings. 

Mr. T. E. Donne of Wellington, New Zealand, was made a Life 
Member in recognition of his recent important additions to previous 
gifts of Maori material. 



MUSEUM NEWS NOTES 125 

Mrs. Armar D. Saundekson was elected a Life Member on 
account of the gift of specimens of the Bongo Antelope and the Bush 
Pig of Africa. 

Mr. Charles H. Towxsexd, Director of the New York aqua- 
rium, was made a Life Member in recognition of his gift of mounted 
specimens of birds from Alaska and ethnological material from the 
South Sea Islands. 

Professor Wm. Morton Wheeler was elected a Patron in rec- 
ognition of his gift of a collection of Formicida 3 , and was made 
Honorary Curator of Social Insects. 

Professor Bashford Dean was elected an Honorary Fellow 
because of gratuitous services during the past five years to the 
Department of Vertebrate Palaeontology, especially in respect to the 
collection of fossil fishes. 

Ix addition to those just named the following new members have 
been elected since the last issue of the Journal : Life Members, Mrs. 
Temple Bowdoix, Mrs. V. Everit Macy, Edwix Swift Balch, 
Jacob Laxgeloth; Annual Members, Mrs. Wm. B. Osgood Field, 
Rev. Hugh Birckhead, C. Ledyard Blair, Dr. Christiax A. Her- 
ter, Rt. Rev. David H. Greer, Dr. Wm. M. Polk, Samuel Sloan, 
Jr., Mrs. J. A. Scrymser, Mrs. Walter B. James, Benjamin Doug- 
lass, Jr., Mrs. Douglas Robixsox, Edwix R. A. Seligmax, Dr. X. 
L. Brittox, Howard Russell Butler, Charles H. Sterxberg, 
Richard Tjader, John C. Pexxixgtox, Mrs. Levi P. Morton, D. 
H. Piersox, Dr. George Roe Lockwood, Charles H. Platt, G. 
L. Morgexthau, Mrs. Leoxard E. Opdycke, Dr. L. Putzel, 
William S. Coffix, Harry S. Seeley, Mrs. James Sullivan. 

Ax important announcement was made at the Trustees' meeting of 
the gift by Mr. D. (). Mills to the Department of Mammalogy of eight 
specimens of the fur seal, to be utilized in the preparation of a group 
illustrating a seal rookery. The specimens were collected at the Pribi- 
lof Islands, Alaska, expressly for the Museum, by order of Mr. Mills, 
who had special permission from the Department of Commerce and 
Labor for their capture. The series consists of male seals two, three, 
five and seven years old, female seals three and four years old and two 
pups six weeks old. 



126 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

The series of several thousand plaster casts of the palates of feeble- 
minded and normal children and adults by Dr. Walter Channing recently 
presented to the Museum forms an important addition to our physical 
anthropological collections, serving as comparative material of great 
value in the study of racial characters. The series is available to 
students upon application. 

Mr. G. S. Bowdoix has presented to the Museum one of the elab- 
orate feather capes for which the Hawaiian Islands have been famous. 
This specimen is one of the most perfect examples known and forms an 
extremely desirable addition to the collection of the Department of 
Anthropology. 

Professor Wm. Morton "Wheeler has presented to the Museum 
his entire collection of Formicidae, which is the largest in this country 
and one of the three largest in the world. This collection represents 
such a large portion of the extensive family Formicidae that all future 
additions can be readily interpolated in it. Nearly every species in the 
collection is represented by long series of specimens (often many hundreds 
in number) and includes many types, co-types and unique specimens. 

The Museum suffers serious loss through the acceptance by Pro- 
fessor Wm. Morton Wheeler of the appointment to the professorship 
of Economic Entomology in Harvard University. Professor Wheeler's 
headquarters and laboratory will be at the Bussey Institution, which is 
located in Forest Hills, Boston, Mass., where he will have exceptional 
opportunity for carrying on research work as to the life history of insects 
inimical to forest trees. 

Mk. G. Frederick Norton, a member of the expedition accom- 
panying Commander Peary to the Arctic Regions last summer, has 
presented to the Museum a valuable series of ethnological specimens 
from the Eskimo of Disco Island and Holstenborg, South Greenland. 
The series consists of an unusually good kayak, or native hunting boat, 
about sixteen feet long; harpoons, harpoon points and seal skin floats; 
lines and throwing boards; a paddle; swivel; line receptacle and seal 
skin boots and pants. 

Exhibits illustrating concretely the acorn, salmon and other in- 
dustries of the Indians of California have recently been installed in the 
Hall of North American Types (No. 102 of the Ground Floor). 



LECTURE ANNOUNCEMENTS 127 

Two important additions to the series of North American habitat 
groups have recently been completed. These are the Duck Hawk 
group, representing a scene along the Palisades of the Hudson River, 
and the Hackensack Meadow group, which represents a section of this 
familiar range and the nesting habits of the birds which frequent it in 
August. 

The fall exhibition of the Horticultural Society of New York was held 
at the Museum November 17-20. The number of entries was large, 
and the display of cut flowers and potted plants was most attractive. 
particularly in the classes of chrysanthemums, orchids and carnations. 

Three floors of the new Columbus Avenue wing of the Museum 
have been set aside for the exhibition made by the Committee on the 
Prevention of Tuberculosis of the Charity Organization Society of New 
York, temporary stairways having been installed, so that ready access 
is had from one floor to the next. This exhibition aroused widespread 
interest during the time that it was held in connection with the recent 
International Tuberculosis Congress at Washington, and it is evident 
that it will attract even more attention and be visited by more people, 
while it is on view at the Museum. The exhibition is open free to the 
public during the usual hours and will continue for several weeks. 
Entrance to it may be had through the temporary doorway at the north 
end of the new wing, at the corner of Columbus Avenue and Seventy- 
ninth Street, as well as through the usual public entrance on Seventy- 
seventh Street. 



LECTURE ANNOUNCEMENTS. 

MEMBERS' COURSE. 

Thursday evenings at 8:15 o'clock. Doors open at 7:45 P. M. 
December 3.— Henry E. Cramptox, "Tahiti and the Society Islands.'' 
December 10.— Nathaniel L. Brittox, "Some Native Trees, Their 
Flowers and Fruits." 

(The Members of the New York Botanical Society 
will be the guests of the Museum on this 
evening.) 
December 17.— Roy C Axdrews, "Whale Hunting with a Camera." 



128 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

PUPILS' COURSE. 

These lectures are open to the pupils of the public schools when accom- 
panied by their teachers and to the children of Members of the Museum on 
the presentation of Membership tickets. 

Lectures begin at 4 p. m. 

Dec. 

Wednesday, 2.— "'Hiawatha's' People." By Harlan I. Smith. 
Friday, 4.— "Industries of the United States." By Roy W. Mixer. 

Monday, 7. — "Among the Filipinos." By Roy C. Andrews. 
Wednesday, 9. — "Physical Geography from Pictures." By Edmund 

Otis Hoyey. 
Friday, 11— "Home Life of American Birds." By Frank M. 

Chapman. 

LEGAL HOLIDAY COURSE. 

Open free to the public. Fully illustrated. Xo tickets required. 
Lectures begin at 3:15 p. m. Doors open at 2:45 p. m. 
Thanksgiving Day, November 20. 

"Mt. Pele, Martinique, in 1902, 1903 and 1908,— the History of a Great 
Volcano. The Destruction of St. Pierre." By Edmund Otis Hoyey. 
Christmas Day, December 25. 

"Whale Hunting with a Camera." By Hoy C. Andrews. 
New Years Day, January 1, 190!). 

"Florida Bird Life." (Illustrated with moving pictures.) By Frank 
M. Chapman. 
Washington's Birthday, February 22, 1909. 

"The Food and Game Fishes of the Eastern United States, — Habits 
and Methods of Capture." By Roy W. Miner. 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY COURSE. 

Jesxjp Lectures. 

Given in cooperation with Columbia University. 
Wednesday evenings atS: 15 o'clock. 

Continuation of a course of lectures on light by Professob Richard C. 
MACLAURIN of Columbia University. 

December 2. — "Dispersion and absorption of light. Recent theories. 
Electrons." 



January 


13.— 


January 


20.— 


January 


27.— 


February 


3.— 



MEETIXGS OF SOCIETIES 129. 

December 9. — "Spectroscopy. Applications to chemistry and astronomy." 
December 16. — "Polarization, with some applications to chemistry and 

molecnlar physics." 
January 6. — "The exact laws of reflection and refraction and their 
bearing on the construction of optical instruments." 
"Optical properties of crystals." 

"The principle of interference and its explanation of vari- 
ous color phenomena." 
"The measurement of light waves and the theory of dif- 
fraction." 
"Some relations between light and electricitv." 



PEOPLE'S COURSE. 

Given in cooperation with the City Department of Education. 
Saturday evenings at 8 o'clock. Doors open at 7:30. 
Professor Bradley Stoeghtox of Columbia University, — a course of 
lectures on metallurgy, illustrated by experiments and stereopticon views. 

December 5. — "The Uses of Iron and Steel in Machine Shops and Bridges 

and other great Engineering Structures." 
December 12. — "The Rolling and Forging of Iron and Steel." 
December 19. — "The Heat Treatment of Steel." 

Tuesday evenings at S o'clock. Doors open at 7: 30. 
Mr. Charles M. Pepper, of the Department of Commerce and Labor, 
— illustrated lectures on "The Twentieth Century South America.'' 

December 1. — "Argentine, the World's Wheatfield." 
December 8. — "The Vastness of Brazil." 
December 15. — "Colombia and the Andes." 

Children are not admitted to the lectures of the People's Course, except 
on presentation of a Museum Member's Card. 

MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

Public meetings of the Xew York Academy of Sciences and Affiliated 
Societies are held at the Museum according to the following schedule: 

On Monday evenings. The Xew York Academy of Sciences: 
First Monday-. Section of Geology and Mineralogy. 
Second Mondays, Section of Biologv. 



.130 THE AMERICAN MUSEUM JOURNAL 

Third Mondays, .Section of Astronomy, Physics and Chemistry. 
Fourth Mondays, Section of Anthropology and Psychology. 
< >n Tuesday evenings, as announced: 

The Linnaean Society, The New York Entomological Society and 
The Torrey Botanical Club. 
On Wednesday evenings, as announced: 

The New York Mineralogical Club. 
On Friday evenings, as announced: 

The New York Microscopical Society. 
The programmes of the meetings of the respective organizations are pub- 
lished in the weekly Bulletin of the New York Academy of Sciences and 
sent to the members of the several societies. Members of the Museum on 
making request of the Director will be provided with the Bulletin as issued- 



The American fluseum Journal 



Edmund Otis Hovey, Editor. 
Frank M. Chapman, ) 
Louis P. Gratacap, , Advisory Bonn/. 
William K. Gregory, ) 

Subscription, One Dollar per year. Fifteen Cents per copy. 
A subscription to the Journal is included in the membership fees of all classes of Members o 

the Museum. 
Subscriptions should be addressed to The American Museum Journal, 30 Bojiston St., Cam- 
bridge, Mass., or 77th St. and Central Park West, New York City. 



Entered as second-class matter January 12. 1907. at the Post-office at Boston, Mass. 
Act of Congress, July 16, 1S94. 



QH 

1 

N3 

v.8 

Biological 
& Medical 
Serials 



Natural history 



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CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY